ສັງຄົມນິຍົມ

ຈາກ ວິກິພີເດຍ
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ສັງຄົມນິຍົມ (ອັງກິດ: Socialism) ແມ່ນລະບົບສັງຄົມແລະເສດຖະກິດ ເຊິ່ງສັງຄົມເປັນເຈົ້າຂອງປັດໄຈການຜະລິດແລະການຈັດການເສດຖະກິດແບບຮ່ວມມື[໑][໒] ຕະຫຼອດຈົນທິສະດີແລະຂະບວນການທາງການເມືອງເຊິ່ງມຸ່ງສະຖາປະນາລະບົບດັ່ງກ່າວ[໓][໔] "ສັງຄົມເປັນເຈົ້າຂອງ" ອາດໝາຍເຖິງ ການປະກອບການສະຫະກອນ ການເປັນເຈົ້າຂອງຮ່ວມ ລັດເປັນເຈົ້າຂອງ ພົນລະເມືອງເປັນເຈົ້າຂອງຄວາມສະເໝີພາບ ພົນລະເມືອງເປັນເຈົ້າຂອງກຳມະສິດ ຫຼືທີ່ກ່າວມາລວມກັນ.[໕] ມີຄວາມຜັນແປຂອງສັງຄົມນິຍົມຫຼາຍແລະບໍ່ມີນິຍາມໃດຄອບຄຸມທັງໝົດ[໖] ຄວາມຜັນແປເຫຼົ່ານີ້ ແມ່ນຕ່າງກັນໃນປະເພດຂອງການເປັນເຈົ້າຂອງໂດຍສັງຄົມທີ່ສົ່ງເສີມ ລະດັບທີ່ເພິ່ງພາຕະຫຼາດຫຼືການວາງແຜນ ວິທີຈັດລະບຽບການຈັດການພາຍໃນສະຖາບັນການຜະລິດ ແລະບົດບາດຂອງລັດໃນການສ້າງສັງຄົມນິຍົມ.[໗]

ລະບົບເສດຖະກິດສັງຄົມນິຍົມອາໄສລັດທິອົງການການຜະລິດເພື່ອໃຊ້ ໝາຍຄວາມວ່າ ຜະລິດສິນຄ້າແລະບໍລິການເພື່ອຕອບສະໜອງອຸປະສົງທາງເສດຖະກິດແລະຄວາມຈຳເປັນຂອງມະນຸດໂດຍກົງ ແລະລະບຸຄຸນຄ່າວັດຖຸຕາມຄຸນຄ່າການໃຊ້ປະໂຫຍດ ຫຼືອັດຖະປະໂຫຍດ ເຊິ່ງກົງຂ້າມກັບການຜະລິດມາເພື່ອສະສົມທຶນແລະເພື່ອກຳໄລ.[໘] ໃນແນວຄິດເດີມຂອງເສດຖະກິດສັງຄົມນິຍົມ ມີການປະສານງານ ການເຮັດບັນຊີ ແລະການປະເມີນຄ່າຢ່າງດຽວກັນໂດຍປະລິມານທາງກາຍະພາບຮ່ວມ (common physical magnitude) ຫຼືການແທກແຮງງານ-ເວລາແທນການຄຳນວນທາງການເງິນ.[໙][໑໐] ມີສອງຂໍ້ສະເໜີໃນການກະຈາຍຜົນຜະລິດ ໜຶ່ງ ຍຶດຕາມຫຼັກທີ່ວ່າໃຫ້ກະຈາຍແກ່ແຕ່ລະຄົນຕາມການເຂົ້າມີສ່ວນຮ່ວມ ແລະສອງ ຍຶດຕາມຫຼັກຜະລິດຈາກທຸກຄົນຕາມຄວາມສາມາດ ໃຫ້ແກ່ທຸກຄົນຕາມຄວາມຈຳເປັນ. ວິທີການຈັດສັນແລະປະເມີນຄ່າຊັບພະຍາກອນຢ່າງແນ່ຊັດ ຍັງເປັນຫົວຂໍ້ຖົກຖຽງໃນການຖົກຖຽງການຄຳນວນສັງຄົມນິຍົມທີ່ກວ້າງກວ່າ.

ອ້າງອີງ[ແກ້ໄຂ]

  1. Bertrand Badie; Dirk Berg-Schlosser; Leonardo Morlino (2011). International Encyclopedia of Political Science. SAGE Publications, Inc. p. 2456. ISBN 978-1412959636. "Socialist systems are those regimes based on the economic and political theory of socialism, which advocates public ownership and cooperative management of the means of production and allocation of resources." 
  2. socialism Britannica ACADEMIC EDITION. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
  3. "2. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) any of various social or political theories or movements in which the common welfare is to be achieved through the establishment of a socialist economic system" "Socialism" at The Free dictionary
  4. "The origins of socialism as a political movement lie in the Industrial Revolution." "Socialism" in Encyclopedia Britannica Online
  5. O'Hara, Phillip (September 2003). Encyclopedia of Political Economy, Volume 2. Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 0-415-24187-1. "In order of increasing decentralisation (at least) three forms of socialized ownership can be distinguished: state-owned firms, employee-owned (or socially) owned firms, and citizen ownership of equity." 
  6. Peter Lamb, J. C. Docherty. Historical dictionary of socialism. Lanham, Maryland, UK; Oxford, England, UK: Scarecrow Press, Inc, 2006. p. 1.
  7. Nove, Alec. Socialism. New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Second Edition (2008): http://www.dictionaryofeconomics.com/article?id=pde2008_S000173
  8. "Socialism and Capitalism: Are They Qualitatively Different Socioeconomic Systems?", by Kotz, David M. Retrieved February 19, 2011, from University of Massachusetts: http://people.umass.edu/dmkotz/Soc_and_Cap_Diff_Syst_06_12.pdf: "This understanding of socialism was held not just by revolutionary Marxist socialists but also by evolutionary socialists, Christian socialists, and even anarchists. At that time, there was also wide agreement about the basic institutions of the future socialist system: public ownership instead of private ownership of the means of production, economic planning instead of market forces, production for use instead of for profit."
  9. Market Socialism: The Debate Among Socialists, by Schweickart, David; Lawler, James; Ticktin, Hillel; Ollman, Bertell. 1998. From "The Difference Between Marxism and Market Socialism" (pp. 61–63): "More fundamentally, a socialist society must be one in which the economy is run on the principle of the direct satisfaction of human needs...Exchange-value, prices and so money are goals in themselves in a capitalist society or in any market. There is no necessary connection between the accumulation of capital or sums of money and human welfare. Under conditions of backwardness, the spur of money and the accumulation of wealth has led to a massive growth in industry and technology ... It seems an odd argument to say that a capitalist will only be efficient in producing use-value of a good quality when trying to make more money than the next capitalist. It would seem easier to rely on the planning of use-values in a rational way, which because there is no duplication, would be produced more cheaply and be of a higher quality."
  10. Bockman, Johanna (2011). Markets in the name of Socialism: The Left-Wing origins of Neoliberalism. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-7566-3.