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January 22, 2009[ແກ້ໄຂ]

ແມ່ແບບ:Infobox Malaysian Royalty

Sultan Mahmud Iskandar Al-Haj ibni Sultan Sir Ismail Al-Khalidi[໑][໒][໓][໔] (born April 8, 1932 in Johor Bahru) was the eighth Yang di-Pertuan Agong (roughly equivalent to King) of Malaysia from April 26, 1984 to April 25, 1989, and the 24th Sultan of Johor.[໕]

Namewise, Sultan Iskandar is simply addressed as "Sultan Iskandar",[໖] although his full name "Sultan Mahmud Iskandar" is occassionally used by the press.[໗][໘] In his younger days, Sultan Iskandar (then a prince, addressed by the title Tunku)[໙] was simply known by his first name, "Tunku Mahmud".[໑໐]

Sultan Iskandar is reputed for being a staunch disciplinarian for his willingness to voice out his opinions in governmental issues. In recent years, subjects who have personally encountered the Sultan described him as a person with a warm[໑໑] and generous personality.[໑໒] Nevertheless, past critics had described him as a person with a turbulent temper, by arguing that his reputation was more or less marred by a series of notorious incidents in the past,[໑໓][໑໔] including an experience of being disinherited from the post of Tunku Mahkota, or Crown Prince in English, in 1961, and a series of alleged criminal acts between the 1970s and the 1990s which provoked moral outrage among the Malaysian public.[໑໕]

Sultan Iskandar is a 4th generation descendant of Sultan Abu Bakar, who in turn was the son of Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim (who served as the Temenggong under Hussein Shah of Johor) and grandson of Temenggong Abdul Rahman.[໑໖] The dynastical name of his lineage–Temenggong dynasty–was so-called as his lineage traced back to a family of Temenggongs.[໑໗] The preceding Sultan prior to Sultan Abu Bakar, Ali and his predecessors who ruled Johor from the 17th to 19th centuries, were descended from a family of Bendaharas–hence the name of the dynasties which the ruling houses were known.[໑໘]

Biography[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Early life[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Sultan Iskandar (known as Tunku Mahmud Iskandar[໔] until 1981) is the eldest son of Sultan Ismail ibni Almarhum Sultan Ibrahim by Sultanah Ungku Tun Aminah binti Ungku Paduka Bena Sri Maharaja Utama Ahmad, and was born in Istana Semayam, Johor Bahru.[໑໙] He received his Primary and Secondary education in Ngee Heng Primary School and the English College (now Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar) in Johor Bahru before acquiring tertiary education at the Trinity Grammar School, in Australia and then to United Kingdom. In addition, he also briefly served as an Officer Cadet in the Johor Civil Service.[໒໐]

In 1956, Tunku Iskandar married a Cornish lady by the name of Josephine Trevorrow, with whom he had four children, including the crown prince, Tunku Ibrahim Ismail. The marriage ended with divorce after a few years, and he remarried in 1961, to Tengku Zanariah, who came from the Kelantan royal family. Tengku Zanariah had six children with the Sultan.[໒໑][໑] However, analysts have observed that any literal references to Trevorrow's association with Sultan Iskandar was carefully omitted in all official biographies.[໒໒]

Tunku Iskandar was appointed the Tunku Mahkota of Johor from 1959 to 1961 and Raja Muda from 1966 to 1981 by Sultan Ismail. On April 29, 1981 he was re-appointed as the Tunku Mahkota shortly before his father's demise.[໒໓]

Sultan of Johor[ແກ້ໄຂ]

On May 10, 1981, Tunku Iskandar was appointed regent of Johor following the demise of his father, and was sworn in as Sultan a day later shortly before his father was buried.[໒໔] In turn, his younger brother, Tunku Abdul Rahman (not to be confused with Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia's first Prime Minister), formerly the Tunku Mahkota of Johor for twenty years under Sultan Ismail, was appointed the Tunku Bendahara of Johor, a post which he held until his death in 1989.[໑໓] In the same year on December 12, Sultan Iskandar was appointed as the Chancellor of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.[໒໕]

Under the elective monarchy system of Malaysia, Sultan Iskandar was elected to be the new Yang Di-Pertuan Agong on February 9, 1984 by the council of rulers–shortly before his predecessor's term expired on April 26, 1984. He succeeded the Sultan of Pahang as the Yang-Di Pertuan Agong on April 26, [໒໖] and an investure–which he was donned in the traditional suit of the Agong, officially installed.[໒໗] Sultan Iskandar served in the capacity as the Yang-Di Pertuan Agong until 1989, whereby the Sultan of Perak succeeded him.[໒໘] As the Yang di-Peruan Agong, Sultan Iskandar was automatically designated under constitutional provisions as the Supreme Commander of the Malaysian Armed Forces, holding the rank of the Field Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force, Admiral of the Royal Malaysian Navy and Field Marshal of the Army.[໒໙]

On April 8, 2006, the Sultan appointed his grandson Tunku Ismail Ibrahim–the son of the Tunku Mahkota–as the Raja Muda during an investure in conjunction on his birthday. The rank of Raja Muda denotes that Tunku Ismail is second in position in terms of the order of succession to the Johor royal throne.[໓໐]

On December 1, 2008, Sultan Iskandar graced the official opening of the Sultan Iskandar customs, immigration and quarantine complex, together with several members of the royal family and key cabinet ministers. The complex was named in honour of the Sultan.[໓໑]

Foreign relations[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Sultan Iskandar was noted for fostering particularly close neighbourly ties with Singapore by developing a personal rapport with top Singaporean leaders since his ascension to the throne, and this practice was also taken up by his sons, the Tunku Mahkota and Tunku Bendahara.[໓໒] Especially from 1988 onwards,[໓໓] media reports highlighted the particularly warm reception which leaders of both countries receive whenever they visited each other's domains.[໓໔][໓໕] Such warm relations were evidenced by the significance placed in the honourary awards that both Sultan Iskandar and members of Singapore's cabinet bestowed upon one another, including but not restricted to:

Nevertheless, Sultan Iskandar's relations with Singapore were not always as rosy–following the International Court of Justice's ruling on the Pedra Branca dispute–which the court ruled to Singapore, the Sultan made felt that the island belonged to Johor and made a vow to find legal means to retrieve the island's sovereignty.[໓໙]

In addition, Sultan Iskandar also forged close ties with the Sultan of Brunei following his expression of interest in the Iskandar Development Region.[໔໐]

Controversies[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Succession[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Prior to his life as the Sultan or Agong and even during the 1980s and early 1990s, Tunku Iskandar's reputation was more or less marred by a number of alleged controversial incidents which received occasional attention from the media. One of the earliest incidents was the loss of his status as Tunku Mahkota in 1961–a position which his father, then Sultan Ismail appointed to him two years earlier, citing reasons of misbehaviour.[໔໑] Sultan Ismail then appointed Tunku Iskandar's younger brother, Tengku Abdul Rahman in favour of him. Nevertheless, Iskandar was made the Raja Muda–being the second in line to the throne from 1966 to 1981.[໔໒] In April 1981, Tunku Iskandar was reinstated as Tunku Mahkota shortly before his father's death the following month and was subsequently installed as the Sultan of Johor,[໔໓] under the orders of his father.[໒໔]

However, some eyewitnesses challenged the legitimacy of Tunku Iskandar's reappointment as the Tunku Mahkota by arguing that they witnessed Sultan Ismail already having lapsed into comatose at the time of his appointment as the Regent.[໔໔] (Records stated that Sultan Ismail lapsed into comatose on May 8, three days before his death.)[໔໕] Relations with the Menteri Besar of Johor, Othman Saat deteriorated when the latter questioned Tunku Iskandar's legitimacy to the throne, which led to an incident which saw the Sultan issuing an order to the Menteri Besar to vacate his office within 24 hours shortly after Sultan Ismail's death, citing reasons for the need for that office space for his own. The Menteri Besar heeded his order, though the Sultan did not move in as he had said.[໔໖] Othman Saat subsequently resigned as the Menteri Besar the following year.[໔໑]

Allegations of criminal misconduct[ແກ້ໄຂ]

In 1972, Tunku Iskandar was charged for causing assault with a mace to two men for overtaking his car and was convicted the following year.[໔໗] Five years later, Tunku Iskandar was also similarly charged and convicted of culpable homicide and manslaughter[໔໘] after shooting and killing a man near his helicopter whom he took to be a smuggler. In both cases, his father, Sultan Ismail intervened and granted official pardons to Tunku Iskandar.[໔໙][໕໐][໕໑] Similarly, his eldest son, Tunku Ibrahim Ismail, was convicted in the 1980s of shooting dead a man in a nightclub during a feud, but was quickly pardoned.[໕໒]

In 1987, Sultan Iskandar was accused of causing the death of a golf caddy in Cameron Highlands by assault, following an incident in which the golf caddy laughed when the Sultan missed a hole. Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia's first Prime Minister, pointed out that the Sultan (then the Agong) could not be prosecuted due to the immunity that was accorded to the rulers, yet he condemned Sultan Iskandar's actions at the same time. In the end the matter was let off without much public attention. The brother of the caddy–who also suffered injuries from the incident, being distressed from what he saw, subsequently ran amok in Kuala Lumpur and had to be quarantined in a mental hospital.[໕໓][໕໔]

Gomez Incident[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Main article: 1993 amendment to Article 66 of the Constitution of Malaysia

Assault[ແກ້ໄຂ]

In late 1992, two separate assault cases by the Sultan himself as well as his younger son, Tunku Abdul Majid Idris on hockey coaches culminated in the stripping of immunity of rulers from prosecution–which received considerable headlines in both the local and international news which was aptly dubbed as "The Gomez Incident".[໕໕][໕໖] The incident was kicked off on July 10, 1992 when Sultan Iskandar's second son, the Tunku Bendahara–Tunku Abdul Majid Idris lost his temper during a hockey match with the Perak hockey team after Perak won the match by a penalty stroke, and assaulted the Perak goalkeeper, Mohamed Jaafar Mohamed Vello.[໕໗] The goalkeeper later lodged a police report on July 30. The incident did reveal some public attention especially when the matter was debated in parliament.[໕໘] The incident did result in the Malaysian Hockey Federation issuing Tunku Majid, (then second-in line to the throne after his elder brother) facing a ban of five years from participating in any tournaments following investigations,[໕໙] as well as a brush whereby he was convicted in January 1993 and faced the liability to be sentenced to a year in prison and/or a RM 2000 fine, but was released on a bail and charges dropped on grounds of immunity, which was still applicable at the time when the act was committed.[໖໐]

The Sultan responded to the ban by putting pressure on the state authorities to enforce isolation of the Johor hockey teams from all national tournaments.[໕໘] In November 1992, Douglas Gomez, a coach for the Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar field hockey team, expressed his displeasure of being called to withdraw from a semi-final national hockey match by the Director of the Johor Education Department. The incident attracted the attention of the Sultan, who personally summoned Gomez to his palace, Istana Bukit Serene, where he was promptly reprimanded and assaulted by the Sultan.[໖໑] Following Gomez's meeting with the Sultan, Gomez sought treatment to his face and stomach. Subsequently, he lodged a police report against the Sultan for assault, claiming that the while there were several members of the Johor Military Force personnel present, the Sultan was personally responsible for the assault.[໖໒]

Public responses and follow ups[ແກ້ໄຂ]

The assault resulted in a public outcry over the event[໖໓] which pressured all levels of the government right up to the top ranks of the federal government to investigate into the matter.[໖໔] In the closing months of 1992 and also the opening months of 1993, dozens of articles mentioning misdeeds by the royal families of several states–but in particular Sultan Iskandar himself were published,[໖໕] many of which included exorbitant fines–way above the prescribed legal limits–which offenders had to pay for obstructing the Sultan's car, amongst others.[໖໖]

The tremendous pressure from the public prompted the Members of Parliament to convene a special session on December 10, 1992 which saw all 96 members of the Dewan Rakyat present during that session passing a unanimous resolution[໖໗] to curb the powers of the rulers if necessary. During the special meeting, parliamentarians highlighted records that both Sultan Iskandar and his two sons–at the time of mention–had been involved in a total of at least 23 cases of assault,[໖໘][໖໙] including five cases by the Sultan after 1981, two cases by the Tunku Mahkota and three cases by the Tunku Bendahara.[໗໐]

A bill was passed by both houses of parliament–the Dewan Rakyat and Dewan Negara respectively in January 19 and 20, 1993 respectively.[໗໑] The bill, which proposed to remove legal immunity was agreed by six out of nine sultans[໗໒]–but saw stiff opposition from three, two of which included the Kelantan royal household and the Sultan of Johor himself. Sultan Iskandar took up the initiative to obtain royal effort to stall the implementation of the proposed bill. The bill proposed to strip rulers and members of the royal families of legal immunity–that is, not to be prosecutable under the law in any event of violations against the law.[໗໓] However, after immense pressure from the federal government–who had now considerable powers following a major constitutional amendment in 1983, a Bill was formally passed in March 1993 which saw the loss of legal immunity by the rulers.[໗໔]

The amendment allowed rulers who violated the laws to be prosecuted, while the Sedition Act of 1948 was also amended to allow public criticism of the rulers.[໗໕] A special court was created–presided by the Lord President of the Federal Court–to empower and prosecute members of the rulers and immediate members of the royal household.[໗໖]

Aftermath[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Sultan Iskandar and his family members, were not prosecuted for their past violations of the law on grounds that the royal immunity still applied when the incidences occured.[໗໗] Nevertheless, shortly after the incident, Sultan Iskandar was prompted to take steps to rehabilitate his public image which was more or less tarnished by the incident. In a public speech in early 1993, the Sultan was noted to have toned down somewhat on his hardline image and appeared to be somewhat more humble, appealing to Johoreans to maintain their loyalty to him.[໖໐]

Sultan Iskandar's grandfather, Sultan Ibrahim was the founder of the Johor Military Force.

The Gomez incident also led to a review and proposal to disband the Johor Military Force (JMF) in August 1993 by the Federal Government, which also stopped channeling funds to the small military force briefly.[໗໘] However, the bill to disband the JMF was subsequently repealed by parliament.[໗໙][໘໐]

In November 2008, a call made by the Regent of Negeri Sembilan, Tunku Naqiyuddin to restore immunity to rulers raised concerns among the public, in view of the history of past royal excesses, but specifically the Gomez incident. However, further clarification by Tunku Naqiyuddin stressed that immunity to rulers should not be extended to cases when rulers commit acts of criminality, such as assault.[໘໑]

Political[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Shortly before to his election as the Yang-Di Pertuan Agong in 1983, a spate of reports alleging Sultan Iskandar's intention to launch a coup d'état by launching a State of emergency to overthrow the government circulated within political circles, which reached Mahathir himself. The Sultan was reportedly having fostered close relations with several key military personnel, including the Army chief himself. The government subsequently took action to curb constitutional loopholes within the constitution and took to task of reducing the power of royal veto in passing legislation, culminating to a constitutional crisis in late 1983.[໘໒] Nevertheless, during his inaugural speech as the Agong in 1984, about a month after the constitutional amendments were passed in parliament, Sultan Iskandar voiced public support for the revised constitution and pledged to act in accordance to the Prime Minister's advise.[໘໓]

A diplomatic scandal between Britain and Malaysia broke out in 1984 when several British newspapers published Sultan Iskandar's coronation–citing the headlines such as "Killer becomes King" and "King a killer", which enraged the Malaysian government who demanded an apology from the British government. The British government refused to apologise on behalf of the newspapers–hence triggering tensions between the two nations.[໘໔]

In 1988, as Sultan Iskandar was serving in his capacity as the Yang-Di Pertuan Agong, the Lord President of the Federal Court Tun Salleh Abas was sacked by the Agong in what led to the 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis.[໘໕] However, observers suggested a remarkably warm relationship[໕໓] between then Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir Mohamad with the Agong, both of whom shared common resentment against the chief justice–Sultan Iskandar convicted of homicide and sentenced to six months imprisonment prior to his Kingship during his youth by Salleh Abas himself in 1977.[໘໖] The sacking of the Lord President, was however not without controversy given the alleged manner in which the Agong and Prime Minister had handled the matter–including an incident which the Agong had refused to forgive the Lord President in spite of an offer of apology.[໘໗][໘໘]

Sultan Iskandar's public call to support Abdullah Badawi's administration in October 2006 created a minor stir among Mahathir's supporters, when he remarked that "Mahathir should act like a pensioner". The call came at a time when Mahathir's spate of criticisms against Abdullah's were at its most vociferous period.[໘໙] The Sultan was the first state ruler to publicly defend the policy of the government during the period of Mahathir's criticisms against the Abdullah administration.[໙໐]

A month later, in November 2006, another small stir erupted during the launching ceremony of the Iskandar Development Region, when Sultan Iskandar voiced his opinion that the Causeway, which connects Johor and Singapore, should be removed in order to allow ships to pass through and promoting development of the state. He also remarked that the people should be wary of all foreigners as they were "vultures" and also urged the people not to hold them in high regard, citing his displeasure on that his ancestors were being "deceived" by the dirty tactics employed by the colonialists to build the Causeway.[໙໑][໙໒]

At the inaugural 12th Johor State Assembly Seating in April 2008, a minor controversy erupted when one opposition MP, Gwee Tong Hiang, flouted dress regulations by appearing in a lounge suite and tie instead of the usual official attire and songkok, resulted in being dismissed from the assembly chamber shortly before the Sultan's arrival.[໙໓] Gwee, a DAP MP, reportedly argued that there was no stated order to wear the official attire and songkok and stated his desire to wear a western suit,[໙໔] promptly drew flak from other MPs and the Menteri Besar, Abdul Ghani Othman who had earlier on met to agree to don in the official attire and songkok prior to the assembly, whereby Gwee was absent.[໙໕] The Sultan, apparently angry at Gwee, sharply criticised him two days later[໙໖] and publicly called upon Gwee to seek an audience with him.[໙໗]

Legacy[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Several projects and institutions were named after the Sultan, including:

Bangunan Sultan Iskandar–Customs, Immigration and Quarantine centre, opened in 2008. This picture was taken while it was still under construction in 2006.

One of his grandsons (the son of his second son, Tunku Abdul Majid), Tunku Mahmood Iskandar, was named after him.[໑໐໖] Some of his children and grandchildren are also similarly named after his forebears, notably his older son, Tunku Ibrahim, who was named after the Sultan's grandfather, Sultan Ibrahim.[໘]

Personal Life[ແກ້ໄຂ]

The Sultan is an avid golfer and devotes much of his free time at the Royal Johor Country Club.[໑໐໗] In addition, he also loved Tennis, Squash and Cinematography.[໑໐໘] Within private circles, Sultan Iskandar was fondly known as "Moody", a testimony to his first name "Mahmud."[໘] His son, Tunku Abdul Majid inherited his interest in Amateur Golf and once served as the President of the Malaysian Golf Association.[໑໐໙]

Notes[ແກ້ໄຂ]

  1. ໑.໐ ໑.໑ JOHOR (Sultanate) retrieved January 3, 2009
  2. Horton, pg 290
  3. Yahaya Ismail, pg 42
  4. ໔.໐ ໔.໑ His first name, "Mahmud", is also sometimes spelled as "Mahmood" by some sources. Bowker-Saur, pg 297
  5. Section B Planning and Implementation, Part 3 Physical Planning Initiatives, CHAPTER 13, Johor Bahru City Centre, ISKANDAR MALAYSIA, pg 6, "....This was followed later by the 21st Sultan of Johor – Sultan Abu Bakar (1862-1895) who laid the foundation for developing Johor into a modern state. ..." NB: Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor is the great-grandfather of Sultan Iskandar.
  6. Andressen, pg 138
  7. Demolish causeway: Johor Sultan, 05 November, 2006 , Dailyexpress
  8. ໘.໐ ໘.໑ ໘.໒ Tunku Azizah is one tough princess, The Star, KEE HUA CHEE, March 19, 2005
  9. Tengku is spelled as Tunku in Johor. K.N. Nadarajah, pg 50
  10. Malaysia By British Association of Malaysia, British Association of Malaysia and Singapore, Phrase: "TUNKU MAHMOOD OF JO- HORE. On 5th August, 1960, at the Istana Bukit..."
  11. Inspiring ruler, NELSON BENJAMIN, April 8, 2007, The Star (Malaysia)
  12. Johor Sultan’s birthday celebration at Dataran Bandaraya in JB today, April 8, 2008, The Star (Malaysia)
  13. ໑໓.໐ ໑໓.໑ Tan Chee Khoon, pg 5
  14. Milne, Mauzy, pg 32
  15. Kamarulnizam Abdullah, pg 148; Kershaw, pg 102-3
  16. Khoo, Abdullah, Wan, pg 43
  17. Nesalamar Nadarajah, pg 44
  18. Andaya, pg 78
  19. Siti Rosnah Haji Ahmad, pg 71
  20. His Majesty and Her Majesty, Website of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, retrieved January 3, 2009
  21. Sleeman, pg 827
  22. Rahman, Solomon, pg 21
  23. Duli Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda Almutawakkil Alallah, Sultan Iskandar Ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Ismail PORTAL RASMI Kerajaan Negeri Johor Darul Ta'zim
  24. ໒໔.໐ ໒໔.໑ Asian Recorder Published by K. K. Thomas at Recorder Press, 1981, pg 16108
  25. Information Malaysia, pg 906
  26. The Europa Year Book: A World Survey, pg xiv
  27. Milne, Mauzy, pg 35
  28. DYMM Seri Paduka Baginda Almutawakkil Alallah, Sultan Iskandar Ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Ismail, retrieved January 3, 2009
  29. Alagappa, pg 267
  30. Tunku Mahkota’s son named Raja Muda of Johor, The Star online, Star Publications, 9 April 2006.
  31. Bangunan Sultan Iskandar Jadi Pintu Masuk Kepada Sembilan Juta Pengunjung, Hamirul Hairi Mohd Noh, 02 December 2008
  32. "Ministers convey Hari Raya wishes to Sultan of Johor", People's Action Party, October 13, 2007
  33. Banks, Muller, Overstreet, pg 423
  34. "VISIT TO SINGAPORE BY HIS MAJESTY SULTAN ISKANDAR IBNI ALMARHUM SULTAN ISMAIL, SULTAN AND SOVEREIGN RULER OF THE STATE AND TERRITORIES OF JOHOR DARUL TA'ZIM, 12 TO 13 APRIL 2007", MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS, SINGAPORE, April 11, 2007
  35. "Warm friendship toasted at annual Hari Raya lunch with Johor Sultan", People's Action Party, October 25, 2006
  36. "FIRST DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER AND MINISTER FOR DEFENCE GOH CHOK TONG RECEIVING JOHOR'S SECOND HIGHEST AWARD, DATO PADUKA MAHKOTA JOHOR (KEHORMAT) FROM YANG DI-PERTUAN AGONG, SULTAN ISKANDAR OF JOHOR IN ISTANA STATE ROOM (DESCRIPTION OF EVENT PROVIDED BY TRANSFERRING AGENCY)", Singapore Press Holdings, 27/07/1988
  37. "Sultan of Johor Visits HQ Commando", MINDEF, April 13, 2007
  38. "Sultan of Johor Visits HQ Commando", MINDEF, April 13, 2007
  39. FARIK ZOLKEPLI. "Sultan vows to reclaim Batu Puteh island", The Star, June 20, 2008
  40. "Brunei eyes Iskandar Malaysia project", The Star, August 28, 2008
  41. ໔໑.໐ ໔໑.໑ Low, pg 185
  42. Sleeman, pg 827
  43. His Majesty and Her Majesty, retrieved January 3, 2009
  44. Kershaw, pg 103
  45. Who's who in Malaysia (1982), pg 463
  46. Southeast Asian Affairs, pg 251
  47. Aliran Monthly, Aliran Kesedaran Negaran, 1992, Malaysia, pg3
  48. Crouch, pg 144
  49. Copetas, Rich, pg 145
  50. UPI. "AROUND THE WORLD; Elected King's Reign Ending in Malaysia", The New York Times, April 26, 1984
  51. Clad, pg 15
  52. Ledesma, Lewis, Savage, pg 366
  53. ໕໓.໐ ໕໓.໑ Crouch, pg 146
  54. The Asia & Pacific Review, By World of Information (Firm), Published by World of Information, 1993, pg 124
  55. Crouch, pg 146-7
  56. Michael Richardson. "Malaysia Prepares To Strip Sultans Of Their Immunity", International Herald Tribune, DECEMBER 15, 1992
  57. Prince to appear before MHF board, by Gerald Martinez, August 10, 1992, New Straits Times
  58. ໕໘.໐ ໕໘.໑ Kershaw, pg 110
  59. MHF (Malaysian Hockey Federation) ban Tunku Majid for five years, by Lazarus Rokk, October 19, 1992, New Straits Times
  60. ໖໐.໐ ໖໐.໑ Asian Bulletin, Asian Peoples' Anti-Communist League, Asian Peoples' Anti-Communist League (China : Republic : 1949- ), Asian-Pacific Anti-Communist League, APLFD (Organization), Published by APACL Publications, 1993, pg 30
  61. "Bending the rulers: Sultan's behaviour raises doubts over role of royalty", FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC REVIEW, Dec. 24-31, 1992, pp. 16
  62. "Gomez: Sultan beat me", New Straits Times, Dec. 7, 1992, pp. 1, 3
  63. "Abdullah: Rakyat ashamed and angry, New Straits Times", New Straits Times, Dec. 7, 1992, pp. 4
  64. "Stem violence, Malay congress to government", New Straits Times, Dec. 7, 1992, pp. 4
  65. "List of criminal acts done by the Johor Sultan", New Straits Times, Jan. 20, 1993, pp. 4
  66. "Motorist: I was fined $500 for blocking royal motorcade", New Straits Times, Dec. 14, 1992, pp. 2
  67. Abdul Aziz Bari. "On bringing back royal immunity", The Malaysian Insider, Dec. 2, 2008
  68. Rowthorn, Benson, Benson, Kerr, Niven, pg 235
  69. Asian Recorder, pg 22904
  70. "List of criminal acts done by the Johor Sultan", New Straits Times, Jan. 20, 1993, pp. 4
  71. Change to take its course: PM tables amendment Bill despite Rulers' disagreement, New Straits Times, Jan. 19, 1993, at 1, 4.
  72. Six Rulers say 'Yes', New Straits Times, Jan. 16, 1993, at 1, 2
  73. Kershaw, pg 110-2
  74. Crouch, pg 147
  75. Somun, Somun-Krupalija, pg 155
  76. A BILL intituled: An Act to amend the Federal Constitution., Dewan Rakyat, January 1993, retrieved January 7, 2009
  77. Othman, Khoo, pg 393
  78. "End to Joh or Military Force, Muhyiddin: Sultan's private army will be disbanded", New Straits Times, August 14, 1993, pp. 1, 2
  79. RANG UNDANG-UNDANG ASKAR TIMBALAN SETIA NEGERI JOHOR (PEMBUBARAN DAN PEMANSUHAN) 1994, SUSUNAN FASAL, Dewan Rakyat, 1994
  80. JOHORE MILITARY FORCES (DISBANDMENT AND REPEAL) BILL 1994, Dewan Rakyat, 1994, retrieved January 7, 2009
  81. Sheridan Mahavera. "'Restore immunity of rulers'", New Straits Times, November 27, 2008
  82. Milne, Mauzy, pg 32-33
  83. Shome, Shome, pg 137
  84. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Asian Recorder
  85. Anwar's Second Sex Case Puts Malaysia Courts on Trial, Bloomberg, Angus Whitley, August 20, 2008
  86. Means, pg 239
  87. Press Statement of Tun Salleh Abas, The Malaysian Bar, Tun Salleh Abas, Sept 26, 2006
  88. Comment: Tun Salleh and the judiciary, The Malaysian Bar, Suppiah s/o Pakrisamy, April 29, 2008
  89. Agence France-Pesse. "Malaysian sultan calls for scrapping of causeway to Singapore", The Nation (Thailand)
  90. NELSON BENJAMIN and MEERA VIJAYAN. "Johor Sultan: Support Pak Lah", The Star, October 24, 2006
  91. Michael Richardson. "Sultan’s Causeway remark causes a stir", The Star (Malaysia), November 5, 2006
  92. "Demolish Causeway - Sultan Iskandar", Bernama, November 04, 2006
  93. DAP rep thrown out of assembly, GLADYS TAY and FARIK ZOLKEPLI, June 20, 2008, The Star (Malaysia)
  94. No uniform or songkok? Please leave assembly, 22 June 2008, The Electric New Paper
  95. Johor DAP reps can wear songkok, NELSON BENJAMIN, June 10, 2008, The Star (Malaysia)
  96. Sultan Reprimands Bentayan State Assemblyman Over Attire, June 21, 2008, Bernama
  97. Johor Sultan unhappy with DAP's Gwee, MEERA VIJAYAN, June 21, 2008, The Star (Malaysia)
  98. SENARAI SEKOLAH MENENGAH KERAJAAN DAN BANTUAN KERAJAAN DI NEGERI JOHOR SEPERTI PADA 30 JUN 2008, by MOE Malaysia
  99. 30 November 2007, 8.00 Pagi - Majlis Perhimpunan Bulanan Peringkat Daerah Pontian, Perkarangan SK. TENGKU MAHMOOD ISKANDAR 1., by Johor Web Portal
  100. Pengenalan JKR Daerah Kota Tinggi, Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia (JKR), retrieved January 17, 2009
  101. Haresh Deol. "Exco: No, you’re not", Malay Mail, December 10, 2008
  102. Program ‘Nostalgia Irama Lagu – Lagu Melayu Asli’, JH/30/12/07, Kementerian Penerangan Malaysia
  103. Project Experience, Environment Asia Sdn. Bhd, retrieved January 17, 2009
  104. "IDR Is Now Iskandar Malaysia", Bernama, April 11, 2008
  105. Syed Umar Ariff. "Glaring glitches mar historic opening", New Straits Times, December 22, 2008
  106. Q&A with HRH Tunku Abdul Majid, President of the Malaysian Golf Association, Sunday, May 25, 2008, Malaysian Golf Association
  107. GOLF MALAYSIA, The No 1 Golf Magazine in Malaysia, retrieved January 3, 2009
  108. Sleeman, pg 827
  109. "MGA turmoil takes new twist", New Straits Times, December 11, 2008

References[ແກ້ໄຂ]

  • A History of Malaysia, Barbara Watson Andaya, Leonard Y. Andaya, Published by Macmillan, 1982, ISBN 0333276728
  • Asian Recorder, Published by K. K. Thomas at Recorder Press, 1993
  • Constitutional Heads and Political Crises: Commonwealth Episodes, 1945-85, By Donald Anthony Low, Macmillan, 1988, ISBN 0333464206
  • Behind the Myth: Business, Money and Power in Southeast Asia, By James Clad, Published by Unwin Hyman, 1989
  • Challenging Times, Abdul Rahman, J. S. Solomon, Pelanduk Publications, 1985, ISBN 9679780945
  • Coercion and Governance: The Declining Political Role of the Military in Asia, Muthiah Alagappa, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0804742278
  • Government and Society in Malaysia, By Harold A. Crouch, Published by Cornell University Press, 1996, ISBN 0801432189
  • Information Malaysia, Published by Berita Publ. Sdn. Bhd., 1990, Item notes: 1990/91
  • Information Malaysia, Published by Berita Publishing, 2002
  • Jendela masa: kumpulan esei sempena persaraan Dato' Khoo Kay Kim, Mohammad Redzuan Othman, Kay Kim Khoo, Penerbit Universiti Malaya, 2001, ISBN 9831001206
  • Johore and the Origins of British Control, 1895-1914, Nesalamar Nadarajah, Arenabuku, 2000, ISBN 9679703185
  • Mads lange fra bali: og hans efterslaegt sultanerne af johor, Paul Andresen, Odense Universitetsforlag, 1992, ISBN 8774928511
  • Mahathir, the Secret of the Malaysian Success: The Secret of the Malaysian Success, By Hajrudin Somun, Lejla Somun-Krupalija, Pelanduk Publications, 2003, ISBN 9679788792
  • Malay Political Leadership, Anthony S. K. Shome, Tony Shome, Routledge, 2002, ISBN 0700716297
  • Malays/Muslims in Singapore: Selected Readings in History, 1819-1965, Kay Kim Khoo, Elinah Abdullah, Meng Hao Wan, Association of Muslim Professionals (Singapore), Centre for Research on Islamic & Malay Affairs (Singapore), Pelanduk Publications, 2006
  • Malaysia, Singapore & Brunei, By Simon Richmond, Marie Cambon, Chris Rowthorn, Damian Harper, Published by Lonely Planet, 2004, ISBN 174059357X
  • Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei, Charles de Ledesma, Mark Lewis, Pauline Savage, Rough Guides (Firm), Published by Rough Guides, 2003, ISBN 1843530945
  • Malaysian Politics: The Second Generation, By Gordon Paul Means, Published by Oxford University Press, 1991, ISBN 0195889835
  • Malaysian Politics Under Mahathir, By Robert Stephen Milne, Diane K. Mauzy, Published by Routledge, 1999, ISBN 0415171431
  • Metal Men: How Marc Rich Defrauded the Country, Evaded the Law, and Became the World's Most Sought-After Corporate Criminal, A. Craig Copetas, Marc Rich, Little Brown, 2001, ISBN 0349106843
  • Negara Brunei Darussalam: A Biographical Dictionary (1860-1996), A. V. M. Horton, 1996, ISBN 0952483106
  • Pemerintah dan pemimpin-pemimpin kerajaan Malaysia, Siti Rosnah Haji Ahmad, Golden Books Centre, 2006, ISBN 9837204303
  • Monarchy in South-East Asia: The Faces of Tradition in Transition, Roger Kershaw, Routledge, 2001, ISBN 0415185319
  • Political Handbook of Asia 2007, Arthur S. Banks, Thomas C. Muller, William R. Overstreet, CQ Press, ISBN 0872894975
  • Siapa kebal, Mahathir atau raja-raja Melayu?, Yahaya Ismail, Dinamika Kreatif, 1993
  • Sistem beraja di Malaysia, Tan Chee Khoon, Published by Pelanduk Publications, 1985
  • Southeast Asian Affairs, By Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Published by Institute of Southeast Asian Studies., 1982, Item notes: 1982
  • Tengku Ahmad Rithauddeen His Story: His Story, K.N. Nadarajah, Pelanduk Publications, 2000, ISBN 9679787095
  • The Europa Year Book: A World Survey, By Taylor & Francis Group, Bernan Associates, Europa Publications Limited, Published by Europa Publications, 1984
  • The International Who's Who 2004, Elizabeth Sleeman, Europa Publications, Routledge, 2003, ISBN 1857432177
  • The Politics of Islam in Contemporary Malaysia, Kamarulnizam Abdullah, Published by Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 2003, ISBN 9679425924
  • Who's who in Asian and Australasian Politics, Bowker-Saur, Bowker-Saur, 1991, ISBN 0862915937
  • Who's who in Malaysia ... & Profiles of Singapore, John Victor Morais, Who's Who Publications, 1982


ແມ່ແບບ:Start box ແມ່ແບບ:S-reg ແມ່ແບບ:Succession box ແມ່ແບບ:Succession box ແມ່ແບບ:End box


















Tunku Ibrahim Ismail Ibni Sultan Mahmud Iskandar Al-Haj[໑] (born November 22, 1958)[໒] is the current Tunku Mahkota of Johor (or Crown Prince in English). He has been holding that post since 1981, within weeks of his father's appointment as Sultan of Johor.

As Tunku Mahkota, he was reputed to have contributed generously to charity and the welfare of Johoreans especially through the Kembara Mahkota Johor, an event which he personally initiated[໓] and was always seen unleashing his rare collection of automobiles and motorcycles.[໔][໕] Nevertheless, his reputation was occassionally questioned by occassional reports of alleged incidents of assaults, which were occassionally published in the press.[໖]

Biography[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Tunku Ibrahim is the eldest son of the current Sultan of Johor, Sultan Iskandar by his first wife Josephine Trevorrow, of Cornish ethnicity from Torquay,[໗] whom Sultan Iskandar (then Tunku Iskandar) met while he was studying in England.[໘] Trevorrow, a propretior by profession, took on the name of "Che Kalsom binti Abdullah" for a time following her marriage to Tunku Iskandar.[໙]

Tunku Ibrahim was born at Sultanah Aminah Hospital in Johor Bahru. As a youth, he received military training in the US–at Fort Benning, Georgia and later at Fort Bragg, North Carolina.[໑໐]

Tunku Ibrahim Ismail was appointed as the Tunku Mahkota of Johor on July 4, 1981,[໑໑] and had served as the regent of Johor between April 26, 1984 and April 25, 1989 when his father served his term as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.[໑໐]

Tunku Ibrahim has five sons: Tunku Ismail, Tunku Abdul Jalil,[໑໒] Tunku Iman, Tunku Abdul Rahman and Tunku Idris, and one daughter, Tunku Aminah,[໑໓] by his spouse, Raja Zarith Sofia,[໑໔] who is the daughter of the late Sultan Idris Shah II of Perak.[໑໕] His eldest son, Tunku Ismail Ibrahim was appointed the Raja Muda in April 2006 by his father in a royal investiture.[໑໖]

Controversies[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Allegations of criminal misconduct[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Occassional reports of alleged criminal misconduct from the 1980s onwards marred Tunku Ibrahim's reputation somewhat, albeit to a much lesser extent than his father, Sultan Iskandar, whose past actions had received considerable attention from mainstream media.[໑໗] In the 1980s, he was convicted of shooting dead a man in a nightclub during a feud, but was quickly pardoned.[໑໘][໑໙]

In late 1992 to early 1993, Tunku Ibrahim also experienced fallouts of the Gomez Incident–in which his father and younger brother, Tunku Majid were accused of two separate but related incidences of assault which provoked a moral outrage nationwide and ultimately resulting in constitutional ammendments allowing members of the royalty to be prosecuted for criminal wrongdoings. During that period of time, the press, which was supported by the Malaysian government, launched a series of vociferous press reports on the history of alleged incidences of royal wrongdoings,[໒໐] of which parliamentarians highlighted that Tunku Ibrahim had been convicted in at least two cases of assault in the 1980s.[໖] This included a victim who was allegedly assaulted by Tunku Ibrahim, Rahim Mohd Nor, who went so far as to describe his assault experience as an act of sadism by Tunku Ibrahim.[໒໑]

In March 2005, a member of the Malaysian royalty allegedly assaulted a young woman by the name of Yasmin with whom he accused of two-timing him with another policeman.[໒໒] The victim's father, Mohd Yasin, later lodged a police report which claimed that the assault culprit was Tunku Ibrahim, the Tunku Mahkota of Johor.[໒໓]

Other incidences[ແກ້ໄຂ]

In October 2005, a brawl occured on Pulau Rawa after a Johor prince allegedly gatecrashed into a wedding party. The prince ordered some guests out of the island after a fight broke out when a woman refused to dance with one of the gatecrashers. The locals, who felt offended by the woman's attitude, went off but soon returned with golf clubs and weapons and started a fight. In the process, several people were injured and sent to the hospital, while five others were arrested, including a 20 year old prince from the Johor royal family. The names of the culprits were not released by the police, who chose to retain the confidentality of the atatckers.[໒໔] The Tunku Mahkota issued a press statement to urge the culprits to apologise to the affected guests.[໒໕]

Notes[ແກ້ໄຂ]

  1. Majlis Perasmian Jambatan Tanjung Sedili oleh TMJ Perasmian Jambatan Tg. Sedili, Jabatan Kerja Raya Daerah Kota Tinggi, Johor Darul Takzim, retrieved January 5, 2008
  2. Information Malaysia: 1985
  3. Thousands greet royal motorcycle expedition, Johor Buzz, New Straits Times, retrieved January 15, 2009
  4. Tunku Mahkota to lead tour for 10th year, July 16, 2008, The Star (Malaysia)
  5. Our Respected Tengku Mahkota Johor Akmal Adanan, September 28, 2007, Fotopages.com
  6. ໖.໐ ໖.໑ "List of criminal acts done by the Johor Sultan", New Straits Times, Jan. 20, 1993, pp. 4
  7. Morris, pg 244
  8. The International Who's Who 2004, pp. 827
  9. Morais (1967), pp. 198
  10. ໑໐.໐ ໑໐.໑ Information Malaysia (1989), pp. 572
  11. Information Malaysia: 1985
  12. Royals visit special people, JohorBuzz, New Straits Times
  13. Raja Zarith Sofiah is new Pro-Chancellor, 03-16-2003, New Sunday Times; pg 2, Section: Nation
  14. Tribute to mothers’ caring nature, May 14, 2008, The Star (Malaysia)
  15. Raja Zarith: Education more important than popularity, BEH YUEN HUI, August 29, 2008, The Star (Malaysia)
  16. Tunku Mahkota’s son named Raja Muda of Johor, The Star online, Star Publications, 9 April 2006.
  17. Kershaw, pg 111
  18. Ledesma, Lewis, Savage, pg 366
  19. Malaysia Prepares To Strip Sultans Of Their Immunity, Michael Richardson, December 15, 1992, International Herald Tribune
  20. Kershaw, pg 110-1
  21. Tengku Mahkota 'Sadistic': Rahim", Berita Harian, February 3, 1993
  22. Prince probed for assaulting woman friend, March 25, 2007, The Star (Malaysia)
  23. Kerabat diraja disiasat kes pukol kekasih Fathi Aris Omar, March 24, 2007, mStar; editor's blog post Kerabat, March 25, 2007
  24. Johor royal gatecrashes wedding Jonathan Kent, 18 October 2005, BBC news
  25. SAY SORRY–It shouldn't have happened, says Tunku Mahkota, pp 1-3, Aishah Ali, Oct 23, 2005, New Straits Times

References[ແກ້ໄຂ]

  • Information Malaysia: 1985 Year Book, Mei Sui Cheong, Published by Berita Publishing, 1985
  • Information Malaysia, Published by Berita Publ. Sdn. Bhd., 1989
  • Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei, Charles de Ledesma, Mark Lewis, Pauline Savage, Rough Guides (Firm), Published by Rough Guides, 2003, ISBN 1843530945
  • Monarchy in South-East Asia: The Faces of Tradition in Transition, By Roger Kershaw, Published by Routledge, 2001, ISBN 0415185319
  • My East was Gorgeous, By Ira J. Morris, Published by Travel Book Club, 1958
  • The International Who's Who 2004: Book with Single-User Online Access, By Elizabeth Sleeman, Europa Publications, Published by Routledge, 2003, ISBN 1857432177
  • The Who's who in Malaysia, By John Victor Morais, Published by Solai Press., 1967

External Links[ແກ້ໄຂ]












ຮູບ:MAJ cropped.JPG
Tunku Majid in 2008

Tunku Abdul Majid Idris Ibni Sultan Mahmud Iskandar Al-Haj[໑][໒] (born July 20, 1970, Johor Bahru)[໓] is the Tunku Bendahara of Johor. He has been holding that position since the death of his uncle Tunku Abdul Rahman in 1989. In addition, he has also served honarary positions, including the President of the Malaysian Gold Association[໔] and Deputy President of the Malaysian Hockey Federation.[໕]

A high-profile notorious incident in 1992 which saw Tunku Majid allegedly assaulting a hockey coach culminated in the stripping of legal immunity among members of the royalty.[໖] Nevertheless, Tunku Majid was often praised in his generous donations and concern in the societal welfare among Johoreans.[໗]

Biography[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Tunku Majid was the second son of Sultan Iskandar by his second wife Tengku Zanariah, and was born in 1970 at the Sultanah Aminah Hospital in Johor Bahru. In his youth, he was enrolled into Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar before pursuing his studies at MENLO College, Palo Alto in San Francisco. Tunku Majid also represented himself in international sports tournaments in the 1980s as a youth, particularly hockey and golf, which he excelled in.[໓] For a period of time between the 1980s and 2000s, Tunku Majid was the Raja Muda of Johor, although his position was later displaced by his nephew, Tunku Ismail Ibrahim, who was appointed Raja Muda by Sultan Iskandar in 2006.[໘][໙]

In January 2006, Tunku Majid Tengku Teh Mazni, a member of the Kelantan royal family.[໑໐] They have a son, Tunku Mahmood Iskandar, whom Tunku Majid fondly named him after his father, Sultan Mahmud Iskandar.[໑໑]

Societal contributions[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Tunku Majid's keen interest in the Malaysian sports industry resulted in his appointment as the President of the Malaysian Golf Association.[໑໒] and Deputy President of the Malaysian Hockey Federation[໑໓] During his tenure as honorary capacity of these national sports associations, he was noted for his contributions to the sporting field at the national level. In 2008, he proposed the formation of the Asean Golf Foundation, of which presidents of the respective gold clubs among ASEAN countries will take turns on a rotational basis to serve as its secretary general.[໑໔] In addition, he was also noted for his personal generous contributions in the development of the Malaysian hockey and golf teams.[໕][໑໕] In late 2008, however, an internal crisis in the administration of these sports associations resulted in Tunku Majid being relieved of his positions.[໑໖]

Controversies[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Gomez Incident[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Main article: Gomez Incident

A relatively high profile incident in 1992 which saw Tunku Majid assaulting a hockey coach culminated in the stripping of legal immunity by members of the royalty. The incident, which occurred on July 10, 1992, occurred during a hockey match with Perak. Tunku Majid, who was with the players, apparently got irritated after the Perak hockey team won the game by a penalty shot, and subsequently beat up the Perak Hockey Coach, Mohamed Jaafar Vello (also known as Jaafar Selvaraj).[໑໗] Following the incident, Jaafar did lodged a police report with the moral support of the cabinet towards the end of the month. Subsequently, press reports launched a series of articles publishing the incident,[໑໘] and the Malaysian Hockey Federation, being prompted to act, issued a five year ban to Tunku Majid from participating in any national hockey tournaments.[໑໙]

Sultan Iskandar, apparently infurated by the decision, issued an edict to pressure the Johor education department to enforce a boycott of Johor hockey teams not to participate in any national hockey tournaments. This led to some hockey coaches being dissatisfied by Sultan Iskandar's decision, and promptly criticised his decision. Sultan Iskandar, taking Gomez' remarks in offence,[໒໐] ordered Gomez to meet him in November 1992 at Istana Bukit Serene, where he promptly reprimanded and assaulted Gomez. The incident sparked off a standoff between the Malaysian government and members of the royalty after the government proposed changes to review the status of legal immunity of the rulers.[໒໑]

Tunku Majid, on the other hand, was ordered to stand trial for voluntarily causing hurt, which he initially pleaded not guilty.[໒໒] Subsequent court sessions into January 1993 convicted him of deliberately causing hurt and hence made him liable to a jail term and/or a fine, though neither penalties were slapped as legal immunity was still relevant when the convictions were slapped on him.[໒໓]

MGA crisis[ແກ້ໄຂ]

In November 2008, accusations by the Malaysian Golf Association was brought up by its members against Tunku Majid for excessive and unethical use of the association's funds. A committee member, Abdul Majid Md Yusoff–an elected committee member who issued the notice of the EGM, in which Tunku Majid responded strongly to his claims.[໒໔] Shortly before an Extraordinary General Meeting was held to decide the fate of Tunku Majid, Tunku Majid expressed that it was unconstitutional to the vires of the rules of the MGA and pledged to continue serving the association until his term expires the following year, but also expressing that he would not seek re-election to be its association's president. He expressed his decision to boycott the meeting,[໒໕] after seeking legal advice from a lawyer.[໒໖]

The delegates voted in favour of impeaching Tunku Majid as his president. A vote of no confidence against Tunku Majid as President was taken–with 129 delegates voting in favour of his impeachment and 33 against.[໒໗] However, questions were about the technical ambiguity questioned the legitimacy of the meeting, whose views were also supported by former President Thomas Lee and vice-President Zain Yusof.[໒໘] Following the delegation, Tunku Majid expressed that he still believed that he was the President of the MGA. Members of the MGA rebutted by citing provisions within its constitution, and refuted Tunku Majid's claims that the EGM was unconstitutional.[໒໙]

In a surprise move, delegates swiftly elected MGA's vice President Robin Loh in Tunku Majid's place, arguing that its legitimacy as provided by the association's constitution.[໓໐]

Notes[ແກ້ໄຂ]

  1. Tunku Azizah is one tough princess, KEE HUA CHEE, Mac 19, 2005, The Star (Malaysia)
  2. UCAPAN MAJLIS PERASMIAN BANGUNAN SULTAN ISKANDAR, Official Mobile Web of the Prime Ministers Office of Malaysia, Mobile Web PMO
  3. ໓.໐ ໓.໑ Istiadat Persandingan Tunku Bendahara Johor Sabtu, January 11, 2006, Bernama
  4. 2008 in Review New Straits Times, December 5, 2008, p9
  5. ໕.໐ ໕.໑ Tunku Majid to NSC: Let us work hand in hand, September 22, 2008, The Star (Malaysia).
  6. Aliran Monthly, Aliran Kesedaran Negaran, 1992, pg 3
  7. Tunku Majid donates RM27,500 for hockey, RIZAL ABDULLAH, June 22, 2006, The Star (Malaysia)
  8. Eliot, Bickersteth, pg 509
  9. Tunku Mahkota’s son named Raja Muda of Johor, The star online, Star Publications, 9 April 2006.
  10. Menanti saat bahagia, 11/01/2006, Utusan Malaysia
  11. Q&A with HRH Tunku Abdul Majid, President of the Malaysian Golf Association, Sunday, May 25, 2008, Malaysian Golf Association
  12. Things not that rosy at all, Joe Carlos, July 8, 2007, The Star (Malaysia)
  13. Tunku Majid: Time to bring in the youngsters, S. Ramaguru, December 17, 2006, The Star (Malaysia)
  14. Taking Asean forward, MALKEET KAUR, November 9, 2008, The Star (Malaysia)
  15. Tunku Majid: Don’t waste money, use it to develop local talents, LIM TEIK HUAT, May 16, 2007, The Star (Malaysia)
  16. The enemy within, ALUOSIES FRANCIS, November 20, 2008, The Malay Mail
  17. Ismail, pg 12; Maidin, pg 96
  18. Maidin, pg 100
  19. Maidin, pg 101
  20. Noor, pg 494-6
  21. Kershaw, pg 110-1
  22. Ruler's son pleads not guilty to causing hurt, allowed bail of $2,000, New Straits Times, Dec. 16, 1992, at 1, 2.
  23. Maidin, Hulaimi, pg 88
  24. Tunku defends himself, Aluosies Francis, November 24, 2008, The Malay Mail
  25. MGA stand-off, Aluosies Francis, December 10, 2008, The Malay Mail
  26. Golf: MGA refutes Tunku Majid's claim, 2008/12/15, New Straits Times
  27. Exco: No, you’re not, Haresh Deol, December 10, 2008, The Malay Mail
  28. Stop hitting out of bounds, December 10, 2008, The Malay Mail
  29. MGA refutes Tunku Majid’s claim New Straits Times, December 15, 2008
  30. MGA: Loh’s election as new president is constitutional, December 16, 2008, New Sabah Times

References[ແກ້ໄຂ]

  • Islam Embedded: The Historical Development of the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party PAS, 1951-2003, Farish Ahmad Noor, Published by Malaysian Sociological Research Institute, 2004
  • Mahathir di sebalik tabir, Zainuddin Maidin, Published by Utusan Publications, 1994
  • Malaysia Handbook: The Travel Guide, Joshua Eliot, Jane Bickersteth, Footprint Travel Guides, 2002, ISBN 1903471273
  • Monarchy in South-East Asia: The Faces of Tradition in Transition, Roger Kershaw, Routledge, 2001, ISBN 0415185319
  • Siapa kebal, Mahathir atau raja-raja Melayu?, Yahaya Ismail, Published by Dinamika Kreatif, 1993
  • The Other Side of Mahathir, Zainudin Maidin, A. Hulaimi, Utusan Publications & Distributors, 1994









Tunku Ismail Ibrahim


Controversies[ແກ້ໄຂ]

In October 2008, reports surfaced about a confrontation and a royal scuffle which allegedly occured in a nightclub in Kuala Lumpur between two princes. Tunku Nadzimuddin, a member of the Negeri Sembilan household, filed a police report accusing of a Johor royal whom he identified the culprit to be Tunku Ismail; for initiating the confrontation and assaulting him in the face and head. A friend of Tunku Nadzimuddin, Shamshuddhuha Ishak, also filed another police report accusing of Tunku Ismail's bodyguards of assaulting him and losing a teeth in the process.[໑]










Sultan Ibrahim of Johor


Early life and family[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Born Che Wan Ibrahim on September 17, 1873 in Istana Bidadari, Singapore, he was the only son of Che Wan Abu Bakar, Temenggung of Johor by Che Puan Besar Zubaidah ("nee" Cecilia Catharina Lange). Zubaidah was the daughter of Mads Johansen Lange; a Balinese-based Danish businessman[໒] and his Chinese wife, Nonna Sangnio[໓] (born Ong Sang Nio). Nonna, who was born in Southern China, lived in East Java for a time prior to her marriage to Lange.[໔]

Che Wan Ibrahim was known as Tunku Ibrahim from 1885, when his father, then Maharaja Abu Bakar, proclaimed himself Sultan and sovereign of the state of Johor.




























ແມ່ແບບ:Infobox Monarch

Almarhum Sultan Sir Ismail Al-Khalidi ibn Almarhum Sultan Sir Ibrahim Al-Masyhur, KBE, CMG, was the 23rd Sultan of Johor in Malaysia.

Early life[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Born Tunku Ismail on October 28, 1894 at Istana Semayam, Johor, he was the eldest son of Sultan Ibrahim by his first wife, Sultanah Ungku Maimunah.

Though proclaimed Tunku Mahkota or crown prince at the age of one, he did not succeed his father until the latter died in May 1959. He was nonetheless the de facto ruler of Johor, as his father was overseas most of the time.[໕]

Sultan of Johor[ແກ້ໄຂ]

He was crowned at Istana Besar, Johor Bahru on the February 10, 1960 and was the last Johor Sultan to be officially crowned.[໖]

He was the first Chancellor of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia when the institution was established.

In 1976, both Sultan Ismail and his wife, Ungku Tun Aminah binti Ungku Ahmad, met with a car accident in Muar. While she was permanently left in a vegetative state until her death in 1977 owing to brain damage, the sultan escaped with only minor injuries.[໗] Nevertheless, the ordeal passed rather quickly, and Sultan Ismail remarried in November 1977 to Tengku Nora. Tengku Nora was subsequently coronated as Sultanah the following October.[໘]

Sultan Ismail died on May 10, 1981 and was interred at the Makam Mahmoodiah royal mausoleum, Johor Bahru.

Succession issues[ແກ້ໄຂ]

On August 10, 1961, he stripped his eldest son Tunku Mahmood Iskandar, of the post of Tunku Mahkota due to misconduct–although he was given the post of Raja Muda on December 1, 1966. His second son, Tunku Abdul Rahman (1933-1989) became the Tunku Mahkota instead. However, shortly before his death in April 1981, Sultan Ismail reappointed Tunku Iskandar as the Tunku Mahkota, who succeeded him the following month.[໙]

Family[ແກ້ໄຂ]

A meek and quiet ruler, Sultan Ismail married two official wives who served as Sultanahs of Johor. They were:

  • Sultanah Ungku Tun Aminah binti Ungku Ahmad (d. 1977), a second cousin of the Sultan, married on August 30, 1920.[໑໐] Sultanah Aminah suffered a road accident in 1976 , and died a year later. He had four children with her, of which only one son survived to adulthood:
  • Tunku Abdul Jalil (1924-25)
  • Tunku Kalthum Maimunah (1927-30)
  • Tunku Abdul Rahman (1930-30)
  • Tunku Iskandar (now Sultan Iskandar) (born 1932)[໑໑]
  • Ungku Maimunah (not to be confused with his mother, the Sultanah and one of his daughters, who share the same name)[໑໒], another relative of his, whom he married somewhere in the 1930s. He had three children with her, of which only one son and one daughter survived to adulthood:[໑໓]
  • Tunku Abdul Rahman (1933-89)
  • Tunku Helen (1936-37)
  • Tunku Tun Maimunah (born 1939)[໑໔]
  • Sultanah Tengku Nora binti Tengku Panglima Raja Ahmad, member of the Kelantanese royal household, married in October 1978. She is the sister of Tengku Zanariah (now Sultanah), the spouse of Sultan Iskandar.[໑໕]

Notes[ແກ້ໄຂ]

  1. Malaysian princes come to blows, Leslie Lopez, South-east Asia Correspondent, 31 October 2008, The Straits Times
  2. Braginsky, Murtagh, Harrison, pg 137
  3. Andresen, pp 7, 42, 48, 184; Schefold, Vermeulen, pp 118
  4. Mabbett, pp 140
  5. Morais (1965), pg xxii
  6. Scott standard postage stamp catalogue, Scott Publishing Co, 1978
  7. Andressen, pg 123
  8. Andressen, pg 125-6
  9. Information Malaysia (1985), pg 58
  10. Morais (1969), pg xxii
  11. Johor15 retrieved January 6, 2008
  12. Johor14 retrieved January 6, 2008
  13. Morais (1965), pg xxii
  14. Johor15 retrieved January 6, 2008
  15. Morais (1979), pg 67

References[ແກ້ໄຂ]

  • The Who's who in Malaysia, John Victor Morais, Published by Solai Press., 1965
  • The Who's Who, Malaysia and Singapore, John Victor Morais, Published by J. Victor Morais, 1969
  • Who's who in Malaysia & Singapore, John Victor Morais, Published by Who's Who Publications., 1979
  • Mads lange fra bali: og hans efterslaegt sultanerne af johor, By Paul Andresen, 1992, ISBN 8774928511
  • Information Malaysia, Published by Berita Publ. Sdn. Bhd., 1985
  • Johore and the Origins of British Control, 1895-1914, Nesalamar Nadarajah, Arenabuku, 2000

ແມ່ແບບ:Start box ແມ່ແບບ:Succession box ແມ່ແບບ:End box



















The 1993 amendment to Article 66 of the Constitution of Malaysia [໑][໒] was passed by the Malaysian parliament with the aim of removing legal immunity of the royalty. It was implemented in March 1993. Previously, the Constitution granted rulers who have violated the law not to be prosecuted by the criminal court unless he voluntarily wishes to surrender his legal immunity.[໓] By some interpretations, the events leading up to the constitutional amendments was considered to be a constitutional crisis,[໔] given that the federal government, who needed the endorsement of the Sultans to implement the law, refused and subsequently led to a brief standoff between both sides.[໕] However, in most cases, the events leading up to the constitutional amendment was generally closely identified as a monarchy crisis rather than a constitutional crisis.[໖]

Gomez Incident[ແກ້ໄຂ]

In 1992, two seperate assault incidents by members of the Johor royal family allegedly occured–[໗] aptly dubbed as the "Gomez Incident" by the media.[໘] The first one occured on July 10, 1992, when the second son of the Sultan Iskandar, the Sultan of Johor, Tunku Abdul Majid, flayed a Perak hockey goalkeeper, Mohamed Jaafar Selvarajah Vello shortly after a hockey championship match between Perak and Johor, supposedly having lost his temper when the Perak team won the match by a penalty stroke.[໙] The goalkeeper made a police report soon afterwards which received attention from the Parliament who pressured the Malaysian Hockey Federation to issue Tunku Majid a ban of five years from participating in any national hockey tournaments in October 1992.[໑໐] The Sultan, enraged by the decision issued to his son, exerted pressure on the state education department to issue orders to school hockey teams in Johor to boycott participation in national tournaments.[໑໑] The decision took a coach, Douglas Gomez to dissatisfaction, who called the resignation of all Johor Hockey Association key position bearers and criticising the education department for destroying the leadership.[໑໒]

The criticisms by Gomez took the Sultan to anger, who summoned Gomez to the palace on November 30 where he was assaulted by the Sultan, in front of his dumbstricken bodyguards,[໑໓] members of the Johor Military Force. Gomez, who suffered injuries to his face and stomach, sought treatment at a private clinic the following day. Gomez subsequently filed a police report on the December 6,[໑໔] after receiving tacit support from the Parliament. The government-backed media, on its part, was swift to report on the incident.[໑໓]

Parliamentary debates and resolutions[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Following the press reports, a special session was held on December 10, 1992 which saw all 96 members of the Dewan Rakyat present to pass an unianimous resolution to curb the powers of the rulers if necessary. The subsequent parliamentary session on December 27 saw discussions to remove legal immunity which agitated Sultan Iskandar to hold a rally to oppose the government's actions, but was forced to cancel after intense government pressure.[໑໕] Members of the opposition party had a passive stance towards the government's proposals, particularly from Semangat 46.[໑໖][໑໗]

A ruler's session was held on January 16, 1993 the following years which requested the government for additional time for consideration to the government's decision. After extensive negotiation, some rulers chose to refuse to endorse the proposed changes to the Federal Constitution, even after the offer for a special court to prosecute the rulers was proposed,[໑໘] claiming that the implementation of a special court would bring about difficulties in legal technicalities.[໑໙][໒໐]

The proposed amendments also came with the demands to allow commoners to criticise the Sultans, even the Yang di-Pertuan Agong without fear of the Sedition Act, with the exception of questioning the legitimacy of the monarchy of Malaysia.[໑໘][໒໑] In addition, the proposed amendments also sought to limit the curtail the power to pardon their offences of family members and parliamentary criticism of the misdeeds of any royalty.[໒໒]

Nevertheless, the parliamentary session on subsequent days saw the Dewan Rakyat to table the proposed amendments in spite of the Sultans' objections, citing as far to say that there was no need to obtain royal assent to implement laws.[໒໓] Back in 1983, Mahathir's cabinet managed to pass ten years earlier.[໒໒][໒໔] Shortly before the Dewan Rakyat concluded its session, 133 out of 180 MPs passed the proposed changes although members of the opposition parties abstained from voting, citing indifferences.[໒໕] The following day, Dewan Negara passed an unanimous resolution to approve of the proposed amendments.[໒໖]

The three rulers, on the other hand, continued to withhold their consent to the amendments which saw the government threatening to withdraw the privilages and continued attacks via the national media[໒໗] on instances of royal excesses of their extravagant lifestyles and even hinting a possibility of ending constitutional monarchy in Malaysia, such as the publication of an article of monarchs who abdicated or were disposed since World War 2.[໒໘]

The Dewan Rakyat passed its implementation on March 8, 1993, while the Dewan Negara approved of its implementation on March 30. A new chapter, Part XV of the Constitution entitled "Proceedings against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and the Rulers" was enshrined.[໒໙]

Media coverage[ແກ້ໄຂ]

The government-backed media, on its part, launched a series of reports between 1992 and 1993 detailing alleged misdeeds by members of he royalty not only by the Johor royal family[໓໐] but also on other royal houses from other states, questioning their extravagant lifestyles and misuse of moral authority to gain alleged concessions. The Pahang royal family, in particular, was criticised for the way which they allegedly gained favourable timber forestry concession rates[໓໑] and the unusually high shares which they were accorded in the timber forestry industry.[໓໒] In Kelantan, Sultan Ismail Petra was also heavily criticised for failing to pay import duty tax after buying an imported Italian luxury sports car as well as[໓໓][໒໑] alleged biased support for Semangat 46 by Dr Mahathir, for violating the constitution which states that monarchs will have to take on a neutral role in political affairs. The leader of Semangat 46, Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah was a member of the Kelantan royal family.[໓໔]

The views of the Islamic Religious leaders were also well publicised, who criticised the royal excesses and even went as far as placing members of the royalty as equal members with the commoners in the eyes of Allah.[໓໕][໓໖][໓໗]

Aftermath[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Another further constitutional amendment in May 1994 allowed any law that has been passed by both the Dewan Rakyat and Dewan Negara to become law within 30 days, irrespective of whether the Agong had given his assent.[໓໘] The new legislation further reduced the veto power of the Agong–amended previously in 1983, who could withhold assent of a proposed amendment within 30 days after both houses of parliament pass a proposed amendment.[໓໙]

The new constitutional amendment took some interesting twists following its amendments: In 1996, a Singaporean filed to sue the Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang for defamation in the special court for the rulers, which was turned down by the Special Court on grounds that the right to sue a ruler only belongs to a Malaysian citizen. A few years later, Sultan Sharafuddin of Selangor, then Tengku Sharifuddin, sued a company, Dikim Holdings. In both cases, only the Special Court had authority to exercise jurisdiction over the Rulers, whether they were to be tried or intended to try another party.[໔໐]

See Also[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Notes[ແກ້ໄຂ]

  1. Kathirithamby-Wells, pg 376
  2. SHERIDAN MAHAVERA: All in the name of fair distribution of power, 2008/12/08, New Straits Times
  3. Nair, pg 133
  4. About Malaysia, for all Malaysians, SOO EWE JIN, December 2, 2007, The Star (Malaysia)
  5. Milne, Mauzy, pg 38
  6. Harper, pg 372
  7. Asian Bulletin, Asian Peoples' Anti-Communist League, Asian Peoples' Anti-Communist League (China : Republic : 1949- ), Asian-Pacific Anti-Communist League, APLFD (Organization), APACL Publications, 1993, pg 32
  8. Asian Bulletin, Asian Peoples' Anti-Communist League, Asian Peoples' Anti-Communist League (China : Republic : 1949- ), Asian-Pacific Anti-Communist League, APLFD (Organization), APACL Publications, 1993, pg 8
  9. Petah, pg 89
  10. Aliran Monthly, Aliran (Association), Aliran Kesedaran Negaran, 1984, pg 30
  11. Gomez lodges police report, Zaman: We will seek A-G's direction to investigate case, New Straits Times, Dec . 7, 19 92, pg 1, 4
  12. Crux of the problem lies with the JHA, NEW STRAITS TIMES, Dec. 7, 1992, p. 13
  13. ໑໓.໐ ໑໓.໑ Noor, Noor, pg 495
  14. Gomez: Sultan beat me, NEW STRAITS TIMES, Dec. 8, 1992, pg 1, 3
  15. Kershaw, pg 111
  16. Semangat to oppose changes, The Star, Dec. 23, 1992, pg 2
  17. Split over palace issue widens, The Star, Dec. 22, 1992, pg 2
  18. ໑໘.໐ ໑໘.໑ Amendments made to proposal to remove legal immun ity: Six Rulers say 'yes', New Straits Times, Jan. 18, 1993, pg 1, 2
  19. Decision of the Special Meeting of the Conference of Rulers on Jan. 18, 1993, New Straits Times, Jan. 19, 1993, pg 2
  20. Rulers: Closer study of draft Bill Needed, New Straits Times, Jan. 19, 1993, pg 1.
  21. ໒໑.໐ ໒໑.໑ Malaysia Prepares To Strip Sultans Of Their Immunity, Michael Richardson, December 15, 1992, International Herald Tribune
  22. ໒໒.໐ ໒໒.໑ Europa World Book 2, pg 2757
  23. PM tables amendment Bill despite Rulers' disagreement, New Straits Times, Jan. 19, 1993, at 1, 4.
  24. Jayasuriya, pg 223
  25. 133 MPs vote to remove legal immunity of Rulers: Amendment Bill passed, New Straits Times, Jan. 20, 1993, pg 1, 2
  26. Senate passes Bill unanimously, New Straits Times, Jan. 21, 1993, pg 1, 2
  27. Showdown with the Royals, Asiaweek, Jan. 27, 1993, pg 30
  28. Crouch, pg 147
  29. Campbell, pg 379
  30. List of criminal acts done by the Johor Sultan, New Straits Times, Jan. 20, 1993, pg 4
  31. Union: Review timb er permits for royalty, New Straits Times, Dec. 15, 1992, pg 2
  32. Lim: 93,000 acres given to Sultan, The Star, Dec. 18, 1992, pg 2
  33. Asian Bulletin, Asian Peoples' Anti-Communist League, Asian Peoples' Anti-Communist League (China : Republic : 1949- ), Asian-Pacific Anti-Communist League, APLFD (Organization), APACL Publications, 1993, pg 36
  34. Asian Recorder, K. K. Thomas at Recorder Press, 1993, pg 23061
  35. Ulamas back constitutional change, New Straits Times, Jan. 1, 1993, pg 2
  36. Qualities worthy of a Ruler in light of Islamic teachings, New Straits Times, Dec. 15, 1992, pg 11
  37. Zaleha: Action was against Islamic teachings, New Straits Times, Jan. 21, 1993, pg 2
  38. Leifer, pg 297
  39. Hwang, pg 241
  40. Test case on right to sue Sultans, August 20, 2008, Shad Saleem Faruqi, The Star (Malaysia)

References[ແກ້ໄຂ]

  • Dictionary of the Modern Politics of South-East Asia, Michael Leifer, Taylor and Francis, 2001, ISBN 0415238757
  • Europa World Year Book 2: Kazakhstan-Zimbabwe, Taylor and Francis Group, 2004, ISBN 185743255X
  • Government and Society in Malaysia, Harold A. Crouch, Cornell University Press, 1996, ISBN 0801432189
  • Kerajaan mansuh kekebalan raja Melayu: semua parti politik sokong, Mokhtar Petah, ART Media, 1993, ISBN 9839835009
  • Law, Capitalism and Power in Asia: The Rule of Law and Legal Institutions, Kanishka Jayasuriya, Routledge, 1999, ISBN 0415197430
  • Legal Aspects of Doing Business in Asia and the Pacific, Christian Campbell, 2006, ISBN 1411650123
  • Islam Embedded: The Historical Development of the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party PAS, 1951-2003, Ahmad-Noor A. Noor, Farish Ahmad Noor, Malaysian Sociological Research Institute, 2004, ISBN 9839986686
  • Islam in Malaysian Foreign Policy, Shanti Nair, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Routledge, 1997, ISBN 041510341X
  • Malaysian Politics Under Mahathir, Robert Stephen Milne, Diane K. Mauzy, Routledge, 1999, ISBN 0415171431
  • Monarchy in South-East Asia: The Faces of Tradition in Transition, Roger Kershaw, Routledge, 2001, ISBN 0415185319
  • Nature and Nation: Forests and Development in Peninsular Malaysia, Jeyamalar Kathirithamby-Wells, Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, NUS Press, 2005, ISBN 997169302X
  • Personalized Politics: The Malaysian State Under Mahathir, In-wŏn Hwang, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2003, ISBN 9812301852
  • The End of Empire and the Making of Malaya, T. N. Harper, Cambridge University Press, 2001, ISBN 0521004659