ບິກິນີ

ຈາກ ວິກິພີເດຍ
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ບິກິນີ

ບິກິນີ ແມ່ນ ຊຸດລອຍນ້ ຳ ສຳ ລັບຜູ້ຍິງປະ ກອບດ້ວຍຜ້າສອງສາມຫລ່ຽມຢູ່ເທິງ, ຄ້າຍກັບ ເສື້ອກັນ ໜາວ ແລະປົກຫຸ້ມ ເຕົ້ານົມ ຂອງຜູ້ຍິງ , ແລະຜ້າສອງສາມຫລ່ຽມຢູ່ດ້ານລຸ່ມ, ດ້ານ ໜ້າ ປົກຄຸມ ກະດານ ແຕ່ເປີດສາຍບື, ແລະດ້ານຫລັງ ປົກຄຸມ ກົ້ນ . [1] [2] ຂະ ໜາດ ຂອງດ້ານເທິງແລະດ້ານລຸ່ມສາມາດແຕກຕ່າງຈາກການປົກຄຸມຂອງເຕົ້ານົມ, ກະດູກແຂນແລະກົ້ນ, ຈົນເຖິງການອອກແບບທີ່ເປີດເຜີຍຫຼາຍຂື້ນເຊັ່ນ: ທອງ ຫຼື G-string ທີ່ປົກຄຸມພຽງແຕ່ areolae ແລະ mons pubis , ແຕ່ຈະເປີດເຜີຍ ກົ້ນ.

ໃນເດືອນພຶດສະພາປີ 1946, ນັກອອກແບບແຟຊັ່ນ Parisian Jacques Heim ໄດ້ ອອກແບບຊຸດລອຍນໍ້າສອງສິ້ນທີ່ລາວໃສ່ຊື່ວ່າ Atome. [3] ຄ້າຍຄືຊຸດລອຍນ້ ຳ ຂອງຍຸກສະ ໄໝ, ມັນປົກຄຸມສາຍບືຂອງຜູ້ຄົນ, ແລະມັນບໍ່ໄດ້ດຶງດູດຄວາມສົນໃຈຫຼາຍ. ຜູ້ອອກແບບເສື້ອຜ້າ Louis Réardໄດ້ ແນະ ນຳ ການອອກແບບ ໃໝ່ ທີ່ນ້ອຍກວ່າຂອງລາວໃນເດືອນກໍລະກົດ. [4] ລາວຕັ້ງຊື່ຊຸດລອຍນໍ້າດັ່ງກ່າວພາຍຫຼັງ Bikini Atoll , ບ່ອນທີ່ການທົດລອງ ລະເບີດນິວເຄຼຍ ຄັ້ງ ທຳ ອິດ ເກີດຂື້ນພຽງແຕ່ 4 ມື້ກ່ອນ. ການອອກແບບ skimpy ຂອງລາວແມ່ນລຸກຂື້ນ, ເປີດເຜີຍສາຍບືຂອງຜູ້ຄົນແລະກົ້ນຂອງນາງຫຼາຍ. No ແບບ runway ຈະໃສ່ມັນ, ດັ່ງນັ້ນເຂົາຈ້າງເປັນ ນັກເຕັ້ນລໍາ nude , ລົງກອນ Bernardini , ຈາກ ຄາສິໂນ de Parisສ້າງແບບຈໍາລອງໃນການທົບທວນແຟຊັ່ນຊຸດລອຍນໍ້າ. [5]

ຍ້ອນການອອກແບບທີ່ມີການຖົກຖຽງແລະເປີດເຜີຍ, ຊຸດແຕ່ງກາຍໄດ້ຖືກຍອມຮັບຢ່າງຊ້າໆຈາກປະຊາຊົນ. ຊຸດລອຍນ້ ຳ ໄດ້ຮັບການເປີດເຜີຍແລະຍອມຮັບເພີ່ມຂື້ນເປັນ ຮູບເງົາທີ່ ຄ້າຍຄືກັບ Brigitte Bardot , Raquel Welch , ແລະ Ursula Andress ໃສ່ພວກເຂົາແລະໄດ້ຖືກຖ່າຍຮູບຢູ່ຫາດຊາຍສາທາລະນະແລະເບິ່ງໃນຮູບເງົາ. ໃນຫລາຍປະເທດການອອກແບບດັ່ງກ່າວຖືກຫ້າມບໍ່ໃຫ້ອອກຈາກຫາດຊາຍແລະສະຖານທີ່ສາທາລະນະອື່ນໆ. [6]

ການອອກແບບຊຸດກະໂປ່ງນ້ອຍໆໄດ້ກາຍເປັນເລື່ອງທົ່ວໄປໃນບັນດາປະເທດຕາເວັນຕົກສ່ວນໃຫຍ່ໃນກາງຊຸມປີ 1960 ຍ້ອນວ່າທັງ ຊຸດລອຍນ້ ຳ ແລະ ຊຸດຊັ້ນໃນ . ຮອດທ້າຍສະຕະວັດທີ 20 ມັນຖືກ ນຳ ໃຊ້ຢ່າງກວ້າງຂວາງເປັນ ຊຸດກິລາ ໃນ ບານສົ່ງຫາດຊາຍ ແລະການອອກ ກຳ ລັງກາຍ . ມີຈໍານວນຂອງທີ່ທັນສະໄຫມແມ່ນ ການປ່ຽນແປງ stylistic ຂອງການອອກແບບການນໍາໃຊ້ເພື່ອຈຸດປະສົງການຕະຫຼາດແລະເປັນການແບ່ງປະເພດອຸດສາຫະກໍາ, ລວມທັງ monokini , microkini , TANKINI- ເສື້ອຕົວຍາວ , trikini , pubikini ແລະ skirtini . ຊຸດລອຍນ້ ຳ ສັ້ນໆ ສຳ ລັບ ຜູ້ຊາຍ ອາດຈະຖືກເອີ້ນວ່າຊຸດລອຍນໍ້າ. [2] ຄ້າຍຄືກັນ, ຊຸດຊັ້ນໃນຂອງຜູ້ຊາຍແລະຜູ້ຍິງແມ່ນຖືກອະທິບາຍວ່າເປັນຊຸດຊັ້ນໃນຂອງຜູ້ຊາຍ.

ຊຸດກະໂປ່ງໄດ້ຄ່ອຍໆໄດ້ຮັບຄວາມຍອມຮັບຢ່າງກວ້າງຂວາງຈາກ ສັງຄົມຕາເວັນຕົກ . ໃນຕົ້ນຊຸມປີ 2000, bikinis ໄດ້ກາຍເປັນທຸລະກິດ 811 ລ້ານໂດລາສະຫະລັດຕໍ່ປີ, ແລະໄດ້ເພີ່ມທະວີການບໍລິການແບບ ໝູນ ວຽນເຊັ່ນ: ການ ຖັກແສ່ວ ແລະການກັນ ແດດ . [7]

Etymology and terminology[ແກ້ໄຂ]

While the two-piece swimsuit as a design existed in classical antiquity,[໑] the modern design first attracted public notice in Paris on July 5, 1946.[໒] French automotive engineer Louis Réard introduced a design he named the "bikini", adopting the name from the Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean,[໓][໔] which was the colonial name the Germans gave to the atoll, transliterated from the Marshallese name for the island, Pikinni.[໕]

Four days earlier, the United States had initiated its first peacetime nuclear weapons test at Bikini Atoll as part of Operation Crossroads.[໖] Réard hoped his swimsuit's revealing style would create an "explosive commercial and cultural reaction" similar to the explosion at Bikini Atoll.[໗][໘][໙][໑໐]

By making an analogy with words like bilingual and bilateral containing the Latin prefix "bi-" (meaning "two" in Latin), the word bikini was first back-derived as consisting of two parts, [bi + kini] by Rudi Gernreich, who introduced the monokini in 1964.[໑໑][໑໒] Later swimsuit designs like the tankini and trikini further cemented this derivation.[໑໓] Over time the "–kini family" (as dubbed by author William Safire[໑໔]), including the "–ini sisters" (as dubbed by designer Anne Cole[໑໕]), expanded into a variety of swimwear including the monokini (also known as a numokini or unikini), seekini, tankini, camikini, hikini (also hipkini), minikini, face-kini, burkini, and microkini.[໑໖] The Language Report, compiled by lexicographer Susie Dent and published by the Oxford University Press (OUP) in 2003, considers lexicographic inventions like bandeaukini and camkini, two variants of the tankini, important to observe.[໑໗] Although "bikini" was originally a registered trademark of Réard, it has since become genericized.[໑໘]

Variations of the term are used to describe stylistic variations for promotional purposes and industry classifications, including monokini, microkini, tankini, trikini, pubikini, bandeaukini and skirtini. A man's brief swimsuit may also be referred to as a bikini.[໑໙] Similarly, a variety of men's and women's underwear types are described as bikini underwear.

ປະຫວັດການ[ແກ້ໄຂ]

ໃນເກົ່າແກ່[ແກ້ໄຂ]

The ancient Roman Villa Romana del Casale (286–305 AD) in Sicily contains one of the earliest known illustrations of a bikini.

Archaeologist James Mellaart described the earliest bikini-like costume in Çatalhöyük, Anatolia in the Chalcolithic era (around 5600 BC), where a mother goddess is depicted astride two leopards wearing a costume somewhat like a bikini.[໑][໒໐] The two-piece swimsuit can be traced back to the Greco-Roman world, where bikini-like garments worn by women athletes are depicted on urns and paintings dating back to 1400 BC.[໒໑]

In Coronation of the Winner, a mosaic in the floor of a Roman villa in Sicily that dates from the Diocletian period (286–305 AD), young women participate in weightlifting, discus throwing, and running ball games dressed in bikini-like garments (technically bandeaukinis in modern lexicon).[໒][໒໒] The mosaic, found in the Sicilian Villa Romana del Casale, features ten maidens who have been anachronistically dubbed the "Bikini Girls".[໒໓][໒໔] Other Roman archaeological finds depict the goddess Venus in a similar garment. In Pompeii, depictions of Venus wearing a bikini were discovered in the Casa della Venere,[໒໕][໒໖][໒໗] in the tablinum of the House of Julia Felix,[໒໘] and in an atrium garden of Via Dell'Abbondanza.[໒໙]

ເຄື່ອງ ສຳ ອາງເບື້ອງຕົ້ນໃນພາກຕາເວັນຕົກ[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Evolution
Loose chemises from the 1900s
Annette Kellerman started the form-fitting swimwear trend, 1909
Actress Jane Wyman in beachwear that bares legs and midriff, 1935

Swimming or bathing outdoors was discouraged in the Christian West, so there was little demand or need for swimming or bathing costumes until the 18th century. The bathing gown of the 18th century was a loose ankle-length full-sleeve chemise-type gown made of wool or flannel that retained coverage and modesty.[໓໐]

In 1907, Australian swimmer and performer Annette Kellerman was arrested on a Boston beach for wearing form-fitting sleeveless one-piece knitted swimming tights that covered her from neck to toe, a costume she adopted from England,[໓໐] although it became accepted swimsuit attire for women in parts of Europe by 1910.[໓໑] In 1913, designer Carl Jantzen made the first functional two-piece swimwear. Inspired by the introduction of females into Olympic swimming he designed a close-fitting costume with shorts for the bottom and short sleeves for the top.[໓໒]

During the 1920s and 1930s, people began to shift from "taking in the water" to "taking in the sun", at bathhouses and spas, and swimsuit designs shifted from functional considerations to incorporate more decorative features. Rayon was used in the 1920s in the manufacture of tight-fitting swimsuits,[໓໓] but its durability, especially when wet, proved problematic.[໓໔] Jersey and silk were also sometimes used.[໓໕] By the 1930s, manufacturers had lowered necklines in the back, removed sleeves, and tightened the sides. With the development of new clothing materials, particularly latex and nylon, swimsuits gradually began hugging the body through the 1930s, with shoulder straps that could be lowered for tanning.[໓໖]

Women's swimwear of the 1930s and 1940s incorporated increasing degrees of midriff exposure. The 1932 Hollywood film Three on a Match featured a midriff baring two piece bathing suit. Actress Dolores Del Rio was the first major star to wear a two-piece women's bathing suit onscreen in Flying Down to Rio (1933).[໓໗]

Teen magazines of late 1940s and 1950s featured similar designs of midriff-baring suits and tops. However, midriff fashion was stated as only for beaches and informal events and considered indecent to be worn in public.[໓໘] Hollywood endorsed the new glamor in films like 1949's Neptune's Daughter in which Esther Williams wore provocatively named costumes such as "Double Entendre" and "Honey Child".[໓໙]

Wartime production during World War II required vast amounts of cotton, silk, nylon, wool, leather, and rubber. In 1942, the United States War Production Board issued Regulation L-85, cutting the use of natural fibers in clothing[໔໐] and mandating a 10% reduction in the amount of fabric in women's beachwear.[໔໑] To comply with the regulations, swimsuit manufacturers removed skirt panels and other attachments,[໓] while increasing production of the two-piece swimsuit with bare midriffs.[໔໒] At the same time, demand for all swimwear declined as there was not much interest in going to the beach, especially in Europe.[໓]

ຊຸດກະໂປ່ງທັນສະ ໄໝ[ແກ້ໄຂ]

ຮູບ:MichelineBernardini.jpg
Micheline Bernardini modeling Réard's bikini at the Piscine Molitor on 5 July 1946. Reard's design was small enough to fit into a ແມ່ແບບ:Convert box like the one she is holding.

In the summer of 1946, Western Europeans enjoyed their first war-free summer in many years. French designers sought to deliver fashions that matched the liberated mood of the people.[໔໑] Fabric was still in short supply,[໔໓] and in an endeavor to resurrect swimwear sales, two French designers – Jacques Heim and Louis Réard  – almost simultaneously launched new two-piece swimsuit designs in 1946.[໔໔][໔໕] Heim launched a two-piece swimsuit design in Paris that he called the atome, after the smallest known particle of matter. He announced that it was the "world's smallest bathing suit."[໔໑][໔໖] Although briefer than the two-piece swimsuits of the 1930s, the bottom of Heim's new two-piece beach costume still covered the wearer's navel.[໔໓][໔໗][໔໘][໔໙]

Soon after, Louis Réard created a competing two-piece swimsuit design, which he called the bikini.[໕໐] He noticed that women at the beach rolled up the edges of their swimsuit bottoms and tops to improve their tan.[໕໑] On 5 July, Réard introduced his design at a swimsuit review held at a popular Paris public pool, Piscine Molitor, four days after the first test of an American nuclear weapon at the Bikini Atoll. The newspapers were full of news about it and Reard hoped for the same with his design.[໕໒][໕໓] Réard's bikini undercut Heim's atome in its brevity. His design consisted of a two triangles of fabric forming a bra, and two triangular pieces of fabric covering the mons pubis and the buttocks connected by string. When he was unable to find a fashion model willing to showcase his revealing design,[໕໔] Réard hired Micheline Bernardini, a 19-year old nude dancer from the Casino de Paris.[໕໕] He announced that his swimsuit, with a total area of ແມ່ແບບ:Convert of cloth, was "smaller than the world's smallest bathing suit".[໕໖][໕໗] Réard said that "like the [atom] bomb, the bikini is small and devastating".[໕໘] Fashion writer Diana Vreeland described the bikini as the "atom bomb of fashion".[໕໘] Bernardini received 50,000 fan letters, many of them from men.[໓][໓໒]

Photographs of Bernardini and articles about the event were widely carried by the press. The International Herald Tribune alone ran nine stories on the event.[໕໙] French newspaper Le Figaro wrote, "People were craving the simple pleasures of the sea and the sun. For women, wearing a bikini signaled a kind of second liberation. There was really nothing sexual about this. It was instead a celebration of freedom and a return to the joys in life."[໓໒]

Heim's atome was more in keeping with the sense of propriety of the 1940s, but Réard's design won the public's attention.[໔໓] Although Heim's design was the first worn on the beach and initially sold more swimsuits, it was Réard's description of the two-piece swimsuit as a bikini that stuck.[໒][໖໐] As competing designs emerged, he declared in advertisements that a swimsuit could not be a genuine bikini "unless it could be pulled through a wedding ring."[໓] Modern bikinis were first made of cotton and jersey.[໖໑]

ສັງຄົມ[ແກ້ໄຂ]

ແມ່ແບບ:Quote box

Despite the garment's initial success in France, women worldwide continued to wear traditional one-piece swimsuits. When his sales stalled, Réard went back to designing and selling orthodox knickers.[໖໒] In 1950, American swimsuit mogul Fred Cole,[໓໒] owner of mass market swimwear firm Cole of California, told Time that he had "little but scorn for France's famed Bikinis."[໖໓] Réard himself would later describe it as a "two-piece bathing suit which reveals everything about a girl except for her mother's maiden name."[໖໔] Fashion magazine Modern Girl Magazine in 1957 stated that "it is hardly necessary to waste words over the so-called bikini since it is inconceivable that any girl with tact and decency would ever wear such a thing".[໒][໓໒]

In 1951, Eric Morley organized the Festival Bikini Contest, a beauty contest and swimwear advertising opportunity at that year's Festival of Britain. The press, welcoming the spectacle, referred to it as Miss World,[໖໕][໖໖] a name Morley registered as a trademark.[໖໗] The winner was Kiki Håkansson of Sweden, who was crowned in a bikini. After the crowning, Håkansson was condemned by Pope Pius XII,[໖໘][໖໙][໗໐] while Spain and Ireland threatened to withdraw from the pageant.[໗໑] In 1952, bikinis were banned from the pageant and replaced by evening gowns.[໗໒][໗໓] As a result of the controversy, the bikini was explicitly banned from many other beauty pageants worldwide.[໗໔][໗໕] Although some regarded the bikini and beauty contests as bringing freedom to women, they were opposed by some feminists[໖໘][໗໖] as well as religious and cultural groups who objected to the degree of exposure of the female body.

The bikini was banned on the French Atlantic coastline, Spain, Italy,[໖໘] Portugal and Australia, and was prohibited or discouraged in a number of US states.[໗໗][໗໘] The United States Motion Picture Production Code, also known as the Hays Code, enforced from 1934, allowed two-piece gowns but prohibited the display of navels in Hollywood films.[໗໙] The National Legion of Decency, a Roman Catholic body guarding over American media content, also pressured Hollywood and foreign film producers to keep bikinis from being featured in Hollywood movies.[໘໐] As late as 1959, Anne Cole, one of the United States' largest swimsuit designers, said, "It's nothing more than a G-string. It's at the razor's edge of decency."[໘໑] The Hays Code was abandoned by the mid-1960s, and with it the prohibition of female navel exposure, as well as other restrictions.[໘໒] The influence of the National Legion of Decency also waned by the 1960s.[໘໓]

ເພີ່ມຂື້ນເພື່ອຄວາມນິຍົມ[ແກ້ໄຂ]

The bikini tradition of Rio Carnival started in 1950. This photo of 2009 shows a Samba dancer in bikini at the Rio Carnival.[໘໔]

Increasingly common glamour shots of popular actresses and models on either side of the Atlantic played a large part in bringing the bikini into the mainstream.[໘໕] During the 1950s, Hollywood stars such as Ava Gardner, Rita Hayworth, Lana Turner,[໘໖][໘໗] Elizabeth Taylor,[໘໗] Tina Louise,[໘໗] Marilyn Monroe,[໘໗] Esther Williams, and Betty Grable[໘໘] took advantage of the risqué publicity associated with the bikini by posing for photographs wearing them—pin-ups of Hayworth and Williams in costume were especially widely distributed in the United States.[໓໒] In 1950, Elvira Pagã walked at the Rio Carnival, Brazil in a golden bikini, starting the bikini tradition of the carnival.[໘໔]

In Europe, 17-year-old Brigitte Bardot wore scanty bikinis (by contemporary standards) in the French film Manina, la fille sans voiles ("Manina, the girl unveiled"). The promotion for the film, released in France in March 1953, drew more attention to Bardot's bikinis than to the film itself. By the time the film was released in the United States in 1958 it was re-titled Manina, the Girl in the Bikini. Bardot was also photographed wearing a bikini on the beach during the 1957 Cannes Film Festival. Working with her husband and agent Roger Vadim she garnered significant attention with photographs of her wearing a bikini on every beach in the south of France.[໘໙]

Similar photographs were taken of Anita Ekberg and Sophia Loren, among others. According to The Guardian, Bardot's photographs in particular turned Saint-Tropez into the beachwear capital of the world,[໕໖] with Bardot identified as the original Cannes bathing beauty.[໙໐] Bardot's photography helped to enhance the public profile of the festival, and Cannes in turn played a crucial role in her career.[໙໑]

Brian Hyland's novelty-song hit "Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polka Dot Bikini" became a Billboard No. 1 hit during the summer of 1960: the song tells a story about a young girl who is too shy to wear her new bikini on the beach, thinking it too risqué.[໙໒] Playboy first featured a bikini on its cover in 1962; the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debut two years later featured Babette March in a white bikini on the cover.[໙໓]

Publicity photo of Frankie Avalon and Annette Funicello for Beach Party films (c. 1960s). Funicello was not permitted to expose her navel.

Ursula Andress, appearing as Honey Rider in the 1962 British James Bond film, Dr. No, wore a white bikini, which became known as the "Dr. No bikini". It became one of the most famous bikinis of all time and an iconic moment in cinematic and fashion history.[໙໔][໙໕][໙໖] Andress said that she owed her career to that white bikini, remarking, "This bikini made me into a success. As a result of starring in Dr. No as the first Bond girl, I was given the freedom to take my pick of future roles and to become financially independent."[໙໔][໙໗]

The bikini finally caught on, and by 1963, the movie Beach Party, starring Annette Funicello and Frankie Avalon, led a wave of films that made the bikini a pop-culture symbol, though Funicello was barred from wearing Réard's bikini unlike the other young females in the films. In 1965, a woman told Time that it was "almost square" not to wear a bikini; the magazine wrote two years later that "65% of the young set had already gone over".[໘໖]

Raquel Welch's fur bikini in One Million Years B.C. (1966) gave the world the most iconic bikini shot of all time and the poster image became an iconic moment in cinema history.[໙໘] Her deer skin bikini in One Million Years B.C., advertised as "mankind's first bikini",[໙໙] (1966) was later described as a "definitive look of the 1960s".[໑໐໐] Her role wearing the leather bikini raised Welch to a fashion icon[໒] and the photo of her in the bikini became a best-selling pinup poster.[໑໐໐]

Stretch nylon bikini briefs and bras complemented the adolescent boutique fashions of the 1960s, allowing those to be minimal.[໑໐໑] DuPont introduced lycra (DuPont's name for spandex) in the same decade.[໓໓] Spandex expanded the range of novelty fabrics available to designers which meant suits could be made to fit like a second skin without heavy linings.[໑໐໒] "The advent of Lycra allowed more women to wear a bikini," wrote Kelly Killoren Bensimon, a former model and author of The Bikini Book, "It didn't sag, it didn't bag, and it concealed and revealed. It wasn't so much like lingerie anymore."[໑໐໓] Increased reliance on stretch fabric led to simplified construction.[໘໕] This fabric allowed designers to create the string bikini, and allowed Rudi Gernreich to create the topless monokini.[໑໐໔] Alternative swimwear fabrics such as velvet, leather, and crocheted squares surfaced in the early '70s.[໘໕]

ການຍອມຮັບຂອງມະຫາຊົນ[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Réard's company folded in 1988,[໑໐໕] four years after his death.[໑໐໖] By the end of the century, the bikini had become the most popular beachwear around the globe. According to French fashion historian Olivier Saillard, this was due to "the power of women, and not the power of fashion". As he explains, "The emancipation of swimwear has always been linked to the emancipation of women",[໒] though one survey indicates 85% of all bikinis never touch the water.[໑໐໗]ແມ່ແບບ:Unreliable source? By 1988 the bikini made up nearly 20% of swimsuit sales, more than any other model in the US,[໘໑] though one-piece suits made a comeback during the 1980s and early 1990s.[໑໐໖]

In 1997, Miss Maryland Jamie Fox became the first contestant in 50 years to compete in a two-piece swimsuit at the Miss America Pageant.[໑໐໘] Actresses in action films like Blue Crush (2002) and Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle (2003) made the two-piece "the millennial equivalent of the power suit", according to Gina Bellafonte of The New York Times,[໓໒]

According to Beth Dincuff Charleston, research associate at the Costume Institute of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, "The bikini represents a social leap involving body consciousness, moral concerns, and sexual attitudes."[໓໒] By the early 2000s, bikinis had become a $811 million business annually, according to the NPD Group, a consumer and retail information company,[໑໐໔] and had boosted spin-off services like bikini waxing and the sun tanning industries.[໑໐໙]

Although child-sized bikinis appeared in the 1950s, in many European countries, swimsuits below size 11 are commonly not sold with a separate top, but in the United States, Britain, and Canada, it has often been considered unacceptable for girls in late childhood (ages 7–11) to go topless.[ຕ້ອງການອ້າງອີງ] Several incidents of families being evicted from public pools due to their child being topless have been reported.[໑໑໐] In 2002, clothing retailer Abercrombie & Fitch came under criticism for selling child-sized thong bikinis and underwear.[໑໑໑]

The first Bikini museum in the world is being built in Bad Rappenau in Germany.[໑໑໒] The development of swimwear from 1880 to the present is presented on 2,000 square metres of exhibition space.[໑໑໓]

ນອກໂລກຕາເວັນຕົກ[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Chinese cheerleaders at Chaoyang Park
British model Sofia Hayat in photoshoot

The 1967 film An Evening in Paris is mostly remembered because it featured Bollywood actress Sharmila Tagore as the first Indian actress to wear a bikini on film.[໑໑໔][໑໑໕] She also posed in a bikini for the glossy Filmfare magazine.[໑໑໖][໑໑໗] The costume shocked a conservative Indian audience,[໑໑໘] but it also set in motion a trend carried forward by Zeenat Aman in Heera Panna (1973) and Qurbani (1980),[໑໑໙] Dimple Kapadia in Bobby (1973),[໑໑໙] and Parveen Babi in Yeh Nazdeekiyan (1982).[໑໑໙][໑໒໐]

Indian women wear bikinis when they vacation abroad or in Goa without the family. Despite the conservative ideas prevalent in India, bikinis have become more popular. In summer, when women take up swimming, often in a public space, a lot of tankinis, shorts and single-piece swimsuits are sold.[໑໒໑] The maximum sales for bikinis happen in the winter, the honeymoon season.[໑໒໑]

By the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the Chinese bikini industry became a serious international threat for the Brazilian bikini industry.[໑໒໒] Huludao, Liaoning, China set the world record for the largest bikini parade in 2012, with 1,085 participants and a photo shoot involving 3,090 women.[໑໒໓][໑໒໔]

For most parts of the Middle East, bikinis are either banned or is highly controversial. Whenແມ່ແບບ:When Lebanese magazine Ash-Shabaka printed a bikini-clad woman on the cover they had to make a second version with only the face of the model.[໑໒໕] In 2011, Huda Naccache (Miss Earth 2011), when she posed for the cover of Lilac (based in Israel) became the first bikini-clad Arab model on the cover of an Arabic magazine.[໑໒໖][໑໒໗][໑໒໘]

Bikini variants[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Selection of bikinis in shop window in the United States, 2005

While the name "bikini" was at first applied only to beachwear that revealed the wearer's navel, today the fashion industry considers any two-piece swimsuit a bikini.[໑໒໙] Modern bikini fashions are characterized by a simple, brief design: two triangles of fabric that form a bra and cover the woman's breasts and a third that forms a panty cut below the navel that covers the groin and the buttocks.[໘໕]

Bikinis can and have been made out of almost every possible clothing material, and the fabrics and other materials used to make bikinis are an essential element of their design.[໑໓໐] Modern bikinis were first made of cotton and jersey. DuPont's introduction of Lycra (spandex) in the 1960s completely changed how bikinis were designed and worn, as according to Kelly Killoren Bensimon, a former model and author of The Bikini Book, "the advent of Lycra allowed more women to wear a bikini...it didn't sag, it didn't bag, and it concealed and revealed. It wasn't so much like lingerie anymore."[໑໐໓] Alternative swimwear fabrics such as velvet, leather, and crocheted squares surfaced in the early 1970s.[໘໕]

In a single fashion show in 1985, there were two-piece suits with cropped tank tops instead of the usual skimpy bandeaux, suits that resembled bikinis from the front and one-pieces from the back, suspender straps, ruffles, and deep navel-baring cutouts.[໑໓໑] Metal and stone jewelry pieces are now often used to dress up look and style according to tastes. To meet the fast pace of demands, some manufacturers now offer made-to-order bikinis ready in as few as seven minutes.[໑໓໒] The world's most expensive bikini was designed in February 2006 by Susan Rosen; containing ແມ່ແບບ:Convert of diamond, it was valued at £20 million.[໑໐໗]

Major styles[ແກ້ໄຂ]

There is a range of distinct bikini styles available — string bikinis, monokinis (topless or top and bottom connected), Trikinis (three pieces instead of two), tankinis (tank top, bikini bottom), camikinis (camisole top, bikini bottom), bandeaukini (bandeau top, bikini bottom), skirtini (bikini top, skirt bottom), "granny bikini" (bikini top, boy shorts bottom), hikinis (also hipkini), seekinis (transparent), minikinis, microkinis, miniminis, slingshots (or suspender bikinis), thong bottoms, tie-sides (a variety of string bikini) and teardrops.[໑໖]

Variant Image Year Description
Bandeaukini
noborder
A bandeaukini (alternatively called a bandini)[໑໓໓] is a bandeau top (no straps going over the shoulders) worn with any bikini bottom.[໑໓໔][໑໓໕] It is the oldest form of bikini, with earliest examples found in Sicilian Villa Romana del Casale (dubbed the "Bikini Girls) dating back to the 4th century AD.[໒໓][໒໔][໑໓໖][໑໓໗] Reintroduced, its appeal grew fast among young women,[໑໓໘] with bandeau tops edging into the sales of the classic tankini.[໑໓໙]
Microkini noborder 1995 A microkini, including subgenres like minikini, minimini and tear-drop, is an extremely meager bikini.[໑໔໐] The designs for both women and men typically use only enough fabric to cover the genitals and, for women, the nipples. Any additional straps are merely to keep the garment attached to the wearer's body. Some variations of the microkini use adhesive or wire to hold the fabric in place over the genitals. Microkinis keep the wearer just within legal limits of decency and fill a niche between nudism and conservative swimwear.[໑໔໑]
Monokini noborder 1964 A monokini (also called topless swimsuit, unikini or numokini) is a women's one-piece garment equivalent to the lower half of a bikini.[໑໔໒] Originally a specific design conceived by Rudi Gernreich in 1964, the term is now used to describe any topless swimsuit,[໑໔໓] particularly a bikini bottom worn without a top.[໑໔໔] An extreme version of the monokini, the thong-style pubikini (which exposed the pubic region), was also designed by Rudi Gernreich in 1985.[໑໔໕][໑໔໖]
Skirtini noborder
The skirtini, which features a bikini top and a small, skirted bottom, is also an innovation for bikini-style clothes with more coverage.[໑໔໗] Two-piece swimsuits with skirt panels were popular in the US before the government ordered a 10% reduction in fabric used in woman's swimwear in 1943 as wartime rationing.[໔໑] In 2011, The Daily Telegraph identified the skirted bikini as one of the top 10 swimwear designs of that season.[໑໔໘]
Sling bikini noborder
The sling bikini (also known as sling-kini, onepiecekini or sling swimsuit) is an unbroken suit, technically one-piece, which resembles a bikini bottom with the side straps extending upwards to cover the breasts and go over the shoulders, or encircling the neck while a second set of straps pass around the midriff (also known as pretzel bikini or pretzel swimsuit).[໑໔໙] Sling swimsuits emerged in the early 1990s, and were introduced into the mainstream in 1994.[໑໕໐][໑໕໑] When designed for or worn by a man, it is called a mankini, popularized by Sacha Baron Cohen in the film Borat.[໑໕໒][໑໕໓]
String bikini noborder 1974 A string bikini (or a tie-side) gets its name from its design that consists of two triangular shaped pieces connected at the groin but not at the sides, where a thin "string" wraps around the waist tied together to connect the two parts. The structure of the side tie bottom leaves the hips bare and just tie the knots on the sides with spaghetti ties or with the sash ties.[໑໕໔] The first formal presentation of string bikini was done by Glen Tororich, a public relations agent, and his wife Brandi Perret-DuJon, a fashion model, for the opening of Le Petite Centre, a shopping area in the French Quarter of the New Orleans, Louisiana in 1974. String bikinis are one of the most popular variations of bikini.[໑໕໕]
Tankini noborder 1998 The tankini is a swimsuit combining a tank top and a bikini bottom.[໑໓໔][໑໕໖][໑໕໗] Tankinis can be made of spandex-and-cotton or Lycra-and-nylon.[໑໕໘] Designer Anne Cole, the US swimwear mogul, was the originator of this style in 1998.[໑໓໔][໑໕໙] A variation is named camkini, with spaghetti straps instead of tank-shaped straps over a bikini bottom.[໑໖໐]
Trikini noborder 1967 The trikini appeared briefly in 1967, defined as "a handkerchief and two small saucers."[໑໖໑] It reappeared in the 1990s as a bikini bottom with a stringed halter of two triangular pieces covering the breasts,[໑໖໒] and in the 2000s as a costume of three separate pieces.[໑໖໓] The trikini top comes essentially in two separate parts.[໑໖໔] The name of this woman's bathing suit is formed from the word "bikini", replacing "bi-", meaning "two", with "tri-", meaning "three".[໑໖໕] In a variation the three pieces are sold as part of one continuous garment.[໑໖໖] A variation is called strapless bikini[໑໖໗] or a no string bikini, often a combination of two pasties with a matching maebari-style bottom.[໑໖໘]

ຄໍເຕົ້າໄຂ່ທີ່ ສຳ ຄັນ[ແກ້ໄຂ]

There is a range of distinct bikini styles available — string bikinis, monokinis (topless or top and bottom connected), Trikinis (three pieces instead of two), tankinis (tank top, bikini bottom), camikinis (camisole top, bikini bottom), bandeaukini (bandeau top, bikini bottom), skirtini (bikini top, skirt bottom), "granny bikini" (bikini top, boy shorts bottom), hikinis (also hipkini), seekinis (transparent), minikinis, microkinis, miniminis, slingshots (or suspender bikinis), thong bottoms, tie-sides (a variety of string bikini) and teardrops.[໑໖]

Variant Image Year Description
Bandeaukini
noborder
A bandeaukini (alternatively called a bandini)[໑໖໙] is a bandeau top (no straps going over the shoulders) worn with any bikini bottom.[໑໓໔][໑໗໐] It is the oldest form of bikini, with earliest examples found in Sicilian Villa Romana del Casale (dubbed the "Bikini Girls) dating back to the 4th century AD.[໒໓][໒໔][໑໗໑][໑໗໒] Reintroduced, its appeal grew fast among young women,[໑໗໓] with bandeau tops edging into the sales of the classic tankini.[໑໗໔]
Microkini noborder 1995 A microkini, including subgenres like minikini, minimini and tear-drop, is an extremely meager bikini.[໑໗໕] The designs for both women and men typically use only enough fabric to cover the genitals and, for women, the nipples. Any additional straps are merely to keep the garment attached to the wearer's body. Some variations of the microkini use adhesive or wire to hold the fabric in place over the genitals. Microkinis keep the wearer just within legal limits of decency and fill a niche between nudism and conservative swimwear.[໑໗໖]
Monokini noborder 1964 A monokini (also called topless swimsuit, unikini or numokini) is a women's one-piece garment equivalent to the lower half of a bikini.[໑໗໗] Originally a specific design conceived by Rudi Gernreich in 1964, the term is now used to describe any topless swimsuit,[໑໗໘] particularly a bikini bottom worn without a top.[໑໗໙] An extreme version of the monokini, the thong-style pubikini (which exposed the pubic region), was also designed by Rudi Gernreich in 1985.[໑໘໐][໑໘໑]
Skirtini noborder
The skirtini, which features a bikini top and a small, skirted bottom, is also an innovation for bikini-style clothes with more coverage.[໑໘໒] Two-piece swimsuits with skirt panels were popular in the US before the government ordered a 10% reduction in fabric used in woman's swimwear in 1943 as wartime rationing.[໔໑] In 2011, The Daily Telegraph identified the skirted bikini as one of the top 10 swimwear designs of that season.[໑໘໓]
Sling bikini noborder
The sling bikini (also known as sling-kini, onepiecekini or sling swimsuit) is an unbroken suit, technically one-piece, which resembles a bikini bottom with the side straps extending upwards to cover the breasts and go over the shoulders, or encircling the neck while a second set of straps pass around the midriff (also known as pretzel bikini or pretzel swimsuit).[໑໔໙] Sling swimsuits emerged in the early 1990s, and were introduced into the mainstream in 1994.[໑໘໔][໑໘໕] When designed for or worn by a man, it is called a mankini, popularized by Sacha Baron Cohen in the film Borat.[໑໘໖][໑໘໗]
String bikini noborder 1974 A string bikini (or a tie-side) gets its name from its design that consists of two triangular shaped pieces connected at the groin but not at the sides, where a thin "string" wraps around the waist tied together to connect the two parts. The structure of the side tie bottom leaves the hips bare and just tie the knots on the sides with spaghetti ties or with the sash ties.[໑໘໘] The first formal presentation of string bikini was done by Glen Tororich, a public relations agent, and his wife Brandi Perret-DuJon, a fashion model, for the opening of Le Petite Centre, a shopping area in the French Quarter of the New Orleans, Louisiana in 1974. String bikinis are one of the most popular variations of bikini.[໑໘໙]
Tankini noborder 1998 The tankini is a swimsuit combining a tank top and a bikini bottom.[໑໓໔][໑໕໖][໑໙໐] Tankinis can be made of spandex-and-cotton or Lycra-and-nylon.[໑໙໑] Designer Anne Cole, the US swimwear mogul, was the originator of this style in 1998.[໑໓໔][໑໙໒] A variation is named camkini, with spaghetti straps instead of tank-shaped straps over a bikini bottom.[໑໙໓]
Trikini noborder 1967 The trikini appeared briefly in 1967, defined as "a handkerchief and two small saucers."[໑໖໑] It reappeared in the 1990s as a bikini bottom with a stringed halter of two triangular pieces covering the breasts,[໑໙໔] and in the 2000s as a costume of three separate pieces.[໑໙໕] The trikini top comes essentially in two separate parts.[໑໙໖] The name of this woman's bathing suit is formed from the word "bikini", replacing "bi-", meaning "two", with "tri-", meaning "three".[໑໙໗] In a variation the three pieces are sold as part of one continuous garment.[໑໙໘] A variation is called strapless bikini[໑໙໙] or a no string bikini, often a combination of two pasties with a matching maebari-style bottom.[໒໐໐]

ບິກິນີໃນກິລາ[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Bikinis have become a major component of marketing various women's sports.[໒໐໑] It is an official uniform for beach volleyball and is widely worn in athletics and other sports. Sports bikinis have gained popularity since the 1990s.[໒໐໒] However, the trend has raised some criticism as an attempt to sell sex.[໒໐໑] Female swimmers do not normally wear bikinis in competitive swimming.[໒໐໓][໒໐໔] The International Swimming Federation (FINA) voted to prohibit female swimmers from racing in bikinis in its meeting at Rome in 1960.[໒໐໕]

Beach volleyball[ແກ້ໄຂ]

US women's beach volleyball team has cited several advantages to bikini uniforms, such as comfort while playing on sand during hot weather.[໒໐໖] Photo shows US beach volleyball players Jennifer Fopma and Brooke Sweat in their uniforms.

In 1994, the bikini became the official uniform of women's Olympic beach volleyball.[໒໐໗] In 1999, the International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) standardized beach volleyball uniforms, with the bikini becoming the required uniform for women.[໒໐໘] That regulation bottom is called a "bun-hugger",[໒໐໙] and players names are often written on the back of the bottom.[໒໐໙]

The uniform made its Olympic debut at Sydney's Bondi Beach in the 2000 Summer Olympics amid some criticism.[໒໑໐] It was the fifth largest television audience of all the sports at the 2000 Games. Much of the interest was because of the sex appeal of bikini-clad players along with their athletic ability.[໒໑໑] Bikini-clad dancers and cheerleaders entertain the audience during match breaks in many beach volleyball tournaments, including the Olympics.[໒໐໙][໒໑໒] Even indoor volleyball costumes followed suit to become smaller and tighter.[໒໐໙]

However, the FIVB's mandating of the bikini ran into problems. Some sports officials consider it exploitative and impractical in colder weather.[໒໐໗] It also drew the ire of some athletes.[໒໑໓] At the 2006 Asian Games at Doha, Qatar, only one Muslim country – Iraq – fielded a team in the beach volleyball competition because of concerns that the uniform was inappropriate. They refused to wear bikinis.[໒໑໔] The weather during the evening games in 2012 London Olympics was so cold that the players sometimes had to wear shirts and leggings.[໒໑໕] Earlier in 2012, FIVB had announced it would allow shorts (maximum length ແມ່ແບບ:Convert above the knee) and sleeved tops at the games. Richard Baker, the federation spokesperson, said that "many of these countries have religious and cultural requirements so the uniform needed to be more flexible".[໒໑໖]

The bikini remains preferred by most players[໒໑໗] and corporate sponsors.[໒໐໙] US women's team has cited several advantages of bikini uniforms, such as comfort while playing on sand during hot weather.[໒໑໘] Competitors Natalie Cook[໒໑໙] and Holly McPeak[໒໑໗] support the bikini as a practical uniform for a sport played on sand during the heat of summer. Olympic gold medal winner Kerry Walsh said, "I love our uniforms." According to fellow gold medalist Misty May-Treanor and Walsh it does not restrict movement.[໒໐໙]

One feminist viewpoint sees the bikini uniform as objectification of women athletes.[໒໑໐] US beach volleyball player Gabrielle Reece described the bikini bottoms as uncomfortable with constant "yanking and fiddling."[໒໐໙][໒໒໐] Many female beach volleyball players have suffered injuries by over-straining the abdominal muscles while many others have gone through augmentation mammoplasty to look appealing in their uniforms.[໒໑໐] Australian competitor Nicole Sanderson said about match break entertainment that "it's kind of disrespectful to the female players. I'm sure the male spectators love it, but I find it a little bit offensive."[໒໒໑]

Sports journalism expert Kimberly Bissell conducted a study on the camera angles used during the 2004 Summer Olympic Games beach volleyball games. Bissell found that 20% of the camera angles were focused on the women's chests, and 17% on their buttocks. Bissell theorized that the appearance of the players draws fans attention more than their actual athleticism.[໒໒໒][໒໒໓] Sports commentator Jeanne Moos commented, "Beach volleyball has now joined go-go girl dancing as perhaps the only two professions where a bikini is the required uniform."[໒໐໙][໒໒໐][໒໒໔] British Olympian Denise Johns argues that the regulation uniform is intended to be "sexy" and to attract attention.[໒໒໕] Rubén Acosta, president of the FIVB, says that it makes the game more appealing to spectators.[໒໑໐]

Bodybuilding[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Bikini is the uniform for both male and female bodybuilders.

From the 1950s to mid-1970s, men's contest formats were often supplemented with women's beauty contests or bikini shows. The winners earned titles like Miss Body Beautiful, Miss Physical Fitness and Miss Americana, and also presented trophies to the winners of the men's contest.[໒໒໖] In the 1980s, the Ms Olympia competition started in the US and in the UK the NABBA (National Amateur Body Building Association) renamed Miss Bikini International to Ms Universe. In 1986, the Ms Universe competition was divided into two sections – "physique" (for a more muscular physique) and "figure" (traditional feminine presentation in high heels).[໒໒໗] In November 2010 the IFBBF (International Federation of BodyBuilding & Fitness) introduced a women's bikini contest for women who do not wish to build their muscles to figure competition levels.[໒໒໘]

Costumes are regulation "posing trunks" (bikini briefs) for both men and women.[໒໒໙] Female bodybuilders in America are prohibited from wearing thongs or T-back swimsuits in contests filmed for television, though they are allowed to do so by certain fitness organizations in closed events.[໒໒໖] For men, the dress code specifies "swim trunks only (no shorts, cut-off pants, or Speedos)."

Other sports[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Croatian high jumper Blanka Vlašić, field, (left) and Bulgarian sprinter Ivet Lalova, track (right) at 2009 World Championships in Athletics.

Women in athletics often wear bikinis of similar size as those worn in beach volleyball. Amy Acuff, a US high-jumper, wore a black leather bikini instead of a track suit at the 2000 Summer Olympics.[໒໓໐] Runner Florence Griffith-Joyner mixed bikini bottoms with one-legged tights at the 1988 Summer Olympics, earning her more attention than her record-breaking performance in the women's 200 meters event.[໒໓໑] In the 2007 South Pacific Games, the rules were adjusted to allow players to wear less revealing shorts and cropped sports tops instead of bikinis.[໒໓໒] At the West Asian Games in 2006, organizers banned bikini-bottoms for female athletes and asked them to wear long shorts.[໒໓໓]

String bikinis and other revealing clothes are common in surfing, though most surfing bikinis are more robust with more coverage than sunning bikinis.[໒໓໔][໒໓໕] Surfing Magazine printed a pictorial of Kymberly Herrin, Playboy Playmate March 1981, surfing in a revealing bikini, and eventually started an annual bikini issue.[໒໓໖] The Association of Surfing Professionals often pairs female surf meets with bikini contests, an issue that divides the female pro-surfing community into two parts.[໒໓໗] It has often been more profitable to win the bikini contest than the female surfing event.[໒໓໘]

ບານສົ່ງຫາດຊາຍ[ແກ້ໄຂ]

US women's beach volleyball team has cited several advantages to bikini uniforms, such as comfort while playing on sand during hot weather.[໒໓໙] Photo shows US beach volleyball players Jennifer Fopma and Brooke Sweat in their uniforms.

In 1994, the bikini became the official uniform of women's Olympic beach volleyball.[໒໐໗] In 1999, the International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) standardized beach volleyball uniforms, with the bikini becoming the required uniform for women.[໒໔໐] That regulation bottom is called a "bun-hugger",[໒໐໙] and players names are often written on the back of the bottom.[໒໐໙]

The uniform made its Olympic debut at Sydney's Bondi Beach in the 2000 Summer Olympics amid some criticism.[໒໑໐] It was the fifth largest television audience of all the sports at the 2000 Games. Much of the interest was because of the sex appeal of bikini-clad players along with their athletic ability.[໒໔໑] Bikini-clad dancers and cheerleaders entertain the audience during match breaks in many beach volleyball tournaments, including the Olympics.[໒໐໙][໒໔໒] Even indoor volleyball costumes followed suit to become smaller and tighter.[໒໐໙]

However, the FIVB's mandating of the bikini ran into problems. Some sports officials consider it exploitative and impractical in colder weather.[໒໐໗] It also drew the ire of some athletes.[໒໔໓] At the 2006 Asian Games at Doha, Qatar, only one Muslim country – Iraq – fielded a team in the beach volleyball competition because of concerns that the uniform was inappropriate. They refused to wear bikinis.[໒໔໔] The weather during the evening games in 2012 London Olympics was so cold that the players sometimes had to wear shirts and leggings.[໒໔໕] Earlier in 2012, FIVB had announced it would allow shorts (maximum length ແມ່ແບບ:Convert above the knee) and sleeved tops at the games. Richard Baker, the federation spokesperson, said that "many of these countries have religious and cultural requirements so the uniform needed to be more flexible".[໒໔໖]

The bikini remains preferred by most players[໒໑໗] and corporate sponsors.[໒໐໙] US women's team has cited several advantages of bikini uniforms, such as comfort while playing on sand during hot weather.[໒໑໘] Competitors Natalie Cook[໒໔໗] and Holly McPeak[໒໑໗] support the bikini as a practical uniform for a sport played on sand during the heat of summer. Olympic gold medal winner Kerry Walsh said, "I love our uniforms." According to fellow gold medalist Misty May-Treanor and Walsh it does not restrict movement.[໒໐໙]

One feminist viewpoint sees the bikini uniform as objectification of women athletes.[໒໑໐] US beach volleyball player Gabrielle Reece described the bikini bottoms as uncomfortable with constant "yanking and fiddling."[໒໐໙][໒໒໐] Many female beach volleyball players have suffered injuries by over-straining the abdominal muscles while many others have gone through augmentation mammoplasty to look appealing in their uniforms.[໒໑໐] Australian competitor Nicole Sanderson said about match break entertainment that "it's kind of disrespectful to the female players. I'm sure the male spectators love it, but I find it a little bit offensive."[໒໔໘]

Sports journalism expert Kimberly Bissell conducted a study on the camera angles used during the 2004 Summer Olympic Games beach volleyball games. Bissell found that 20% of the camera angles were focused on the women's chests, and 17% on their buttocks. Bissell theorized that the appearance of the players draws fans attention more than their actual athleticism.[໒໔໙][໒໕໐] Sports commentator Jeanne Moos commented, "Beach volleyball has now joined go-go girl dancing as perhaps the only two professions where a bikini is the required uniform."[໒໐໙][໒໒໐][໒໕໑] British Olympian Denise Johns argues that the regulation uniform is intended to be "sexy" and to attract attention.[໒໕໒] Rubén Acosta, president of the FIVB, says that it makes the game more appealing to spectators.[໒໑໐]

ເພາະກາຍ[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Bikini is the uniform for both male and female bodybuilders.

From the 1950s to mid-1970s, men's contest formats were often supplemented with women's beauty contests or bikini shows. The winners earned titles like Miss Body Beautiful, Miss Physical Fitness and Miss Americana, and also presented trophies to the winners of the men's contest.[໒໒໖] In the 1980s, the Ms Olympia competition started in the US and in the UK the NABBA (National Amateur Body Building Association) renamed Miss Bikini International to Ms Universe. In 1986, the Ms Universe competition was divided into two sections – "physique" (for a more muscular physique) and "figure" (traditional feminine presentation in high heels).[໒໒໗] In November 2010 the IFBBF (International Federation of BodyBuilding & Fitness) introduced a women's bikini contest for women who do not wish to build their muscles to figure competition levels.[໒໕໓]

Costumes are regulation "posing trunks" (bikini briefs) for both men and women.[໒໕໔] Female bodybuilders in America are prohibited from wearing thongs or T-back swimsuits in contests filmed for television, though they are allowed to do so by certain fitness organizations in closed events.[໒໒໖] For men, the dress code specifies "swim trunks only (no shorts, cut-off pants, or Speedos)."

ກິລາອື່ນໆ[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Croatian high jumper Blanka Vlašić, field, (left) and Bulgarian sprinter Ivet Lalova, track (right) at 2009 World Championships in Athletics.

Women in athletics often wear bikinis of similar size as those worn in beach volleyball. Amy Acuff, a US high-jumper, wore a black leather bikini instead of a track suit at the 2000 Summer Olympics.[໒໕໕] Runner Florence Griffith-Joyner mixed bikini bottoms with one-legged tights at the 1988 Summer Olympics, earning her more attention than her record-breaking performance in the women's 200 meters event.[໒໕໖] In the 2007 South Pacific Games, the rules were adjusted to allow players to wear less revealing shorts and cropped sports tops instead of bikinis.[໒໕໗] At the West Asian Games in 2006, organizers banned bikini-bottoms for female athletes and asked them to wear long shorts.[໒໕໘]

String bikinis and other revealing clothes are common in surfing, though most surfing bikinis are more robust with more coverage than sunning bikinis.[໒໕໙][໒໖໐] Surfing Magazine printed a pictorial of Kymberly Herrin, Playboy Playmate March 1981, surfing in a revealing bikini, and eventually started an annual bikini issue.[໒໖໑] The Association of Surfing Professionals often pairs female surf meets with bikini contests, an issue that divides the female pro-surfing community into two parts.[໒໖໒] It has often been more profitable to win the bikini contest than the female surfing event.[໒໖໓]

ຊຸດຊັ້ນໃນຊຸດບິກິນີ[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Certain types of underwear are described as bikini underwear and designed for men and women. For women, bikini or bikini-style underwear is underwear that is similar in size and form to a regular bikini. It can refer to virtually any undergarment that provides less coverage to the midriff than lingerie, panties or knickers,[໒໖໔] especially suited to clothing such as crop tops. For men, bikini briefs are undergarments that are smaller and more revealing than men's classic briefs. Men's bikini briefs can be low- or high-side that are usually lower than true waist, often at hips, and usually have no access pouch or flap, legs bands at tops of thighs.[໒໖໕] String bikini briefs have front and rear sections that meet in the crotch but not at the waistband, with no fabric on the side of the legs.[໒໖໖]

Swimwear and underwear have similar design considerations, both being form-fitting garments. The main difference is that, unlike underwear, swimwear is open to public view.[໒໖໗] The swimsuit was, and is, following underwear styles,[໒໖໘] and at about the same time that attitudes towards the bikini began to change, underwear underwent a redesign towards a minimal, unboned design that emphasized comfort first.[໒໖໙]

History[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Women's underwear
1927
2013

As the swimsuit was evolving, the underwear started to change. Between 1900 and 1940, swimsuit lengths followed the changes in underwear designs.[໒໗໐] In the 1920s women started discarding the corset, while the Cadole company of Paris started developing something they called the "breast girdle".[໒໗໑] During the Great Depression, panties and bras became softly constructed and were made of various elasticized yarns making underwear fit like a second skin. By 1930s underwear styles for both women and men were influenced by the new brief models of swimwear from Europe. Although the waistband was still above the navel, the leg openings of the panty brief were cut in an arc to rise from the crotch to the hip joint. The brief served as a template for most all variations of panties for the rest of the century.[໒໗໒] Warner standardized the concept of Cup size in 1935. The first underwire bra was developed in 1938.[໒໗໑] Beginning in the late thirties skants, a type of skanty men's briefs, were introduced, featuring very high-cut leg openings and a lower rise to the waistband.[໒໗໒] Howard Hughes designed a push-up bra to be worn by Jane Russell in The Outlaw in 1943, although Russell stated in interviews that she never wore the 'contraption'. In 1950 Maidenform introduced the first official bust enhancing bra.[໒໗໑]

By the 1960s, the bikini swimsuit influenced panty styles and coincided with the cut of the new lower rise jeans and pants.[໒໗໒] In the seventies, with the emergence of skintight jeans, thong versions of the panty became mainstream, since the open, stringed back eliminated any tell-tale panty lines across the rear and hips. By the 1980s the design of the French-cut panty pushed the waistband back up to the natural waistline and the rise of the leg openings was nearly as high (French Cut panties come up to the waist, has a high cut leg, and usually are full in the rear[໒໗໓]). As with the bra and other type of lingerie, manufacturers of the last quarter of the century marketed panty styles that were designed primarily for their sexual allure.[໒໗໒] From this decade sexualization and eroticization of the male body was on the rise. The male body was celebrated through advertising campaigns for brands such as Calvin Klein, particularly by photographers Bruce Weber and Herb Ritts.[໒໗໔] Male bodies and men's undergarments were commodified and packaged for mass consumption, and swimwear and sportswear were influenced by sports photography and fitness.[໒໗໔] Over time, swimwear evolved from weighty wool to high-tech skin-tight garments, eventually cross-breeding with sportswear, underwear and exercise wear, resulting in the interchangeable fashions of the 1990s.[໒໗໕]

ປະຫວັດການ[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Women's underwear
1927
2013

As the swimsuit was evolving, the underwear started to change. Between 1900 and 1940, swimsuit lengths followed the changes in underwear designs.[໒໗໖] In the 1920s women started discarding the corset, while the Cadole company of Paris started developing something they called the "breast girdle".[໒໗໑] During the Great Depression, panties and bras became softly constructed and were made of various elasticized yarns making underwear fit like a second skin. By 1930s underwear styles for both women and men were influenced by the new brief models of swimwear from Europe. Although the waistband was still above the navel, the leg openings of the panty brief were cut in an arc to rise from the crotch to the hip joint. The brief served as a template for most all variations of panties for the rest of the century.[໒໗໒] Warner standardized the concept of Cup size in 1935. The first underwire bra was developed in 1938.[໒໗໑] Beginning in the late thirties skants, a type of skanty men's briefs, were introduced, featuring very high-cut leg openings and a lower rise to the waistband.[໒໗໒] Howard Hughes designed a push-up bra to be worn by Jane Russell in The Outlaw in 1943, although Russell stated in interviews that she never wore the 'contraption'. In 1950 Maidenform introduced the first official bust enhancing bra.[໒໗໑]

By the 1960s, the bikini swimsuit influenced panty styles and coincided with the cut of the new lower rise jeans and pants.[໒໗໒] In the seventies, with the emergence of skintight jeans, thong versions of the panty became mainstream, since the open, stringed back eliminated any tell-tale panty lines across the rear and hips. By the 1980s the design of the French-cut panty pushed the waistband back up to the natural waistline and the rise of the leg openings was nearly as high (French Cut panties come up to the waist, has a high cut leg, and usually are full in the rear[໒໗໗]). As with the bra and other type of lingerie, manufacturers of the last quarter of the century marketed panty styles that were designed primarily for their sexual allure.[໒໗໒] From this decade sexualization and eroticization of the male body was on the rise. The male body was celebrated through advertising campaigns for brands such as Calvin Klein, particularly by photographers Bruce Weber and Herb Ritts.[໒໗໔] Male bodies and men's undergarments were commodified and packaged for mass consumption, and swimwear and sportswear were influenced by sports photography and fitness.[໒໗໔] Over time, swimwear evolved from weighty wool to high-tech skin-tight garments, eventually cross-breeding with sportswear, underwear and exercise wear, resulting in the interchangeable fashions of the 1990s.[໒໗໘]

Bikini waxing[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Bikini waxing styles
American waxing (also: triangle, regular)
French waxing (also: Mohican, landing strip)
Brazilian waxing (also: Hollywood, full monty)

Bikini waxing is the epilation of pubic hair beyond the bikini line by use of waxing. The bikini line delineates the part of a woman's pubic area to be covered by the bottom part of a bikini, which means any pubic hair visible beyond the boundaries of a swimsuit.[໒໘໗] Visible pubic hair is widely culturally disapproved, considered to be embarrassing, and often removed.[໒໘໗]

As popularity of bikinis grew, the acceptability of pubic hair diminished.[໒໘໘] But, with certain styles of women's swimwear, pubic hair may become visible around the crotch area of a swimsuit.[໒໘໗] With the reduction in the size of swimsuits, especially since the advent of the bikini after 1945, the practice of bikini waxing has also become popular.[໒໘໗] The Brazilian style which became popular with the rise of thong bottoms.[໒໘໙]

Depending on the style of bikini-bottom and the amount of skin visible outside the bikini,[໒໘໙] pubic hair may be styled into several styles[໒໗໙][໒໘໐][໒໘໑] — American waxing (removal of pubic hair from the sides, top of the thighs, and under the navel), French waxing (leaves only a vertical strip in front), Brazilian waxing (removal of all hair in the pelvic area, particularly suitable for thong bottoms).[໒໙໐]

Bikini tan[ແກ້ໄຂ]

Tan lines created by a bikini

The tan lines created by the wearing of a bikini while tanning are known as a bikini tan. A 1969 innovation of tan-through swimwear uses fabric which is perforated with thousands of micro holes that are nearly invisible to the naked eye, but which let enough sunlight through to produce a line-free tan.[໒໙໑][໒໙໒]

As bikinis leave most of the body exposed to potentially dangerous UV radiation, overexposure can cause sunburn, skin cancer, as well as other acute and chronic health effects on the skin, eyes, and immune system.[໒໙໓] As a result, medical organizations recommend that bikini wearers protect themselves from UV radiation by using broad-spectrum sunscreen, which has been shown to protect against sunburn, skin cancer,[໒໙໔] wrinkling and sagging skin.[໒໙໕] Certain sunscreen ingredients can cause harm if they penetrate the skin over time.[໒໙໖]

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  74. Magnanti, Brooke. "Miss World bikini ban: why it's no victory for feminists", The Telegraph, June 7, 2013. ຮຽກຂໍ້ມູນວັນທີ August 22, 2013
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  134. ໑໓໔.໐ ໑໓໔.໑ ໑໓໔.໒ ໑໓໔.໓ ໑໓໔.໔ ໑໓໔.໕ Becky Homan, "Tankini goes over the top", St. Louis Post-Dispatch, April 3, 1999
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  136. Whitney Friedlander, That's why they're called 'bathing' suits, Los Angeles Times, May 23, 2010
  137. Villa Romana del Casale, UNESCO
  138. "Just chillin, This season's swimsuits boast new flirty styles, retro looks", Ocala Star-Banner, June 1, 2005
  139. Rena Fulka, "Seasonal style", The Star (Tinley Park), June 14, 2007
  140. Microkini at Merriam-Webster's Open Dictionary
  141. Mistrík, Erich, Pseudo-Concrete Ideals Of A Good Life, Human Affairs (2/2008), Department of Social & Biological Communication, Slovenská Akadémia Vied, Slovakia
  142. The Concise Oxford Dictionary (2004 ed.)
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  145. Ellen Shultz, ed. (1986). Recent acquisitions: A Selection, 1985–1986. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-87099-478-4. 
  146. Stewart, Elizabeth Gunther; Spencer, Paula (2002). The V book : a doctor's guide to complete vulvovaginal health (Bantam trade pbk. ed.). New York: Bantam Books. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-553-38114-6. "In 1985, designer Rudi Gernreich unveiled the "pubikini," a bathing suit meant to expose pubic hair." 
  147. Nada Manley, "Beauty & the Beach: The perfect swimsuit is out there – honestly", The Daytona Beach News-Journal, March 17, 2005
  148. Justine Picardie, The Closet Thinker: bathing beauties, The Daily Telegraph, July 3, 2011
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  152. Steve Helling, "Cruising Tips from New Kids on the Block", People, May 18, 2009
  153. Staff, "Blackpool Council considers 'mankini' outfit ban", BBC, Aug 21, 2014
  154. Biqiniz Bikini Glossary Know your bandeaus from your halters.
  155. Valerie Steele, Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion, page 121, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005, ແມ່ແບບ:ISBN
  156. ໑໕໖.໐ ໑໕໖.໑ Alisha Davis, "It Rhymes With Bikini", Newsweek, May 4, 1998
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  158. Anne D'Innocenzio, "Big fish rule a bigger pond", Women's Wear Daily, January 24, 2000
  159. Rose Apodaca Jones, "Five decades in the swim", Women's Wear Daily, Fairchild Publications, April 23, 2001
  160. Kathryn Bold, "Summer Sizzle Top to Bottom", Los Angeles Times, page 1, March 21, 1996
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  162. David L. Gold, Studies in Etymology and Etiology, page 101, Universidad de Alicante, 2009, ແມ່ແບບ:ISBN
  163. Associated Press, "Free and easy", The Age (Australia), 2004 -06-29
  164. John Ayto, Ian Crofton & Ebenezer Cobham Brewer, Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable, page 78, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006, ແມ່ແບບ:ISBN
  165. Robert L. Chapman & Harold Wentworth, New Dictionary of American Slang, page 446, Harper & Row, 1986, ແມ່ແບບ:ISBN.
  166. John Karl, "Under cover Designers are wrapping swimsuits with stylish designs, Sarasota Herald Tribune, 200-02-08
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  168. Gavin Ambrose and Paul Harris, The Visual Dictionary of Fashion Design, page 180, AVA Publishing, 2007, ແມ່ແບບ:ISBN
  169. Kelly Killoren Bensimon, The Bikini Book, Assouline, 2006, ແມ່ແບບ:ISBN
  170. Patricia Marx, "On and Off the Avenue: Itsy Bitsy Teeny Weeny", page 32, The New Yorker, August 31, 2009, Volume 85, Issues 26, New Yorker Magazine Inc.
  171. Whitney Friedlander, That's why they're called 'bathing' suits, Los Angeles Times, May 23, 2010
  172. Villa Romana del Casale, UNESCO
  173. "Just chillin, This season's swimsuits boast new flirty styles, retro looks", Ocala Star-Banner, June 1, 2005
  174. Rena Fulka, "Seasonal style", The Star (Tinley Park), June 14, 2007
  175. Microkini at Merriam-Webster's Open Dictionary
  176. Mistrík, Erich, Pseudo-Concrete Ideals Of A Good Life, Human Affairs (2/2008), Department of Social & Biological Communication, Slovenská Akadémia Vied, Slovakia
  177. The Concise Oxford Dictionary (2004 ed.)
  178. "Everything Bikini". Everything Bikini. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. ສືບຄົ້ນເມື່ອ November 12, 2012.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  179. "Bikini Science". Bikini Science. Archived from the original on January 8, 2010. ສືບຄົ້ນເມື່ອ November 12, 2012.  Unknown parameter |df= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  180. Ellen Shultz, ed. (1986). Recent acquisitions: A Selection, 1985–1986. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-87099-478-4. 
  181. Stewart, Elizabeth Gunther; Spencer, Paula (2002). The V book : a doctor's guide to complete vulvovaginal health (Bantam trade pbk. ed.). New York: Bantam Books. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-553-38114-6. "In 1985, designer Rudi Gernreich unveiled the "pubikini," a bathing suit meant to expose pubic hair." 
  182. Nada Manley, "Beauty & the Beach: The perfect swimsuit is out there – honestly", The Daytona Beach News-Journal, March 17, 2005
  183. Justine Picardie, The Closet Thinker: bathing beauties, The Daily Telegraph, July 3, 2011
  184. Slingshot Suspender Bikinis: A History, Love to know swimsuits, Glam Publisher Network
  185. Fashion Correspondent, "Itsy bitsy teenie weenie ... trivia think swimsuits. If two-pieces and t-backs are all that come to mind ... think again", The Miami Herald, page 1G, July 15, 1995
  186. Steve Helling, "Cruising Tips from New Kids on the Block", People, May 18, 2009
  187. Staff, "Blackpool Council considers 'mankini' outfit ban", BBC, Aug 21, 2014
  188. Biqiniz Bikini Glossary Know your bandeaus from your halters.
  189. Valerie Steele, Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion, page 121, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005, ແມ່ແບບ:ISBN
  190. "Tankini". oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com. ສືບຄົ້ນເມື່ອ March 14, 2013. 
  191. Anne D'Innocenzio, "Big fish rule a bigger pond", Women's Wear Daily, January 24, 2000
  192. Rose Apodaca Jones, "Five decades in the swim", Women's Wear Daily, Fairchild Publications, April 23, 2001
  193. Kathryn Bold, "Summer Sizzle Top to Bottom", Los Angeles Times, page 1, March 21, 1996
  194. David L. Gold, Studies in Etymology and Etiology, page 101, Universidad de Alicante, 2009, ແມ່ແບບ:ISBN
  195. Associated Press, "Free and easy", The Age (Australia), 2004 -06-29
  196. John Ayto, Ian Crofton & Ebenezer Cobham Brewer, Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable, page 78, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006, ແມ່ແບບ:ISBN
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  238. Mark Stranger, Surfing Life: Surface, Substructure and the Commodification of the Sublime, page 40, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2011, ແມ່ແບບ:ISBN
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  255. Staff Correspondent, "Hype Hopes Today's Olympians need more than athletic prowess to win gold", Fort Worth Star-Telegram, August 6, 2000
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  261. Matt Warshaw, The History of Surfing, page 417, Chronicle Books, 2011, ແມ່ແບບ:ISBN
  262. Douglas Booth, Australian Beach Cultures: The History of Sun, Sand and Surf, page 139, Routledge, 2012, ແມ່ແບບ:ISBN
  263. Mark Stranger, Surfing Life: Surface, Substructure and the Commodification of the Sublime, page 40, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2011, ແມ່ແບບ:ISBN
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